Things to Know
1. Mead= honey-wine
2. 70% of ALD leads to Cirrhosis
3. William Brande demonstrated alcohol was in wine and beer
4. Rhode Island + Connecticut= two states that didn’t ratify the 18 amendment
5. Dr. Benjamin Rush= “stewardship” movement to save the new republic
6. Prior to the 16 amendment (income tax), federal government relied on alcohol for 40% of financial support
7. Symbolic law: good life as defined by elite
b. Values of a specific group
c. Ignore pluralism of society
8. Instrumental laws: make it possible to live together (purpose)
a. Allow us to feel safe
b. Traffic laws, etc.
a. Prohibition is contradictory! Our kids are watching people openly break the law
10. Utah= last state to repeal the 18 amendment
11. Chemicalistic fallacy = drug A causes behavior B
12. Moral entrepreneurship- moral entrepreneur is a person who seeks to influence a group to adopt or
maintain a norm. The moral entrepreneur may press for the creation or enforcement of a norm for any number
of reasons, altruistic or selfish.
13. Vasopressin- urine output is increased because of alcohol suppresses a hormone vasopressin which controls
14. Vasodilatation- peripheral blood vessels expand/dilateallowing body heat to escape
15. Cross-tolerance: tolerance to one drug creates an automatic tolerance to others.
a. Cross tolerance is found among people who smoke
a. Have you attempted to cut down?
b. Have you been annoyed by criticism of your drinking?
c. Do you have guilty feelings about your drinking?
d. Have you ever had an eye-opener?
17. Alcohol seems to produce contradictory symbols when it comes to sex
a. Disinhibtion- alcohol suppresses an area in the brain controlling male aggression in pursuing females
b. Testosterone- as a males BAC rises, testosterone level in his body decreases; important hormone
produced in the testes
18. Sociological Approach
a. Alcoholism is a condition or disease brought on by too much too drink, too often and subsequent behavior
19. Nominalist approach alcoholism is the violation of specific norms
a. Assumes we know an alcoholic when we see one--? It is an objective condition, alcoholism is a fact
20. Interactionalist- emphasizing the processes (laws, norms, values) and structures (agencies, institutions)
involved within a specific social context (recognition of variability in defining alcohol problems) that lead to
the label alcoholic
21. AUD- alcohol use disorder
a. A person who is alcohol dependent has increased tolerance to alcohol or symptoms of withdrawal after
discontinuing alcohol ingestion
b. A person abusing alcohol begins to disregard his/her responsibilities in school, at work, or socially
because of alcohol use. Also, the alcohol abuser may engage in dangerous activities while intoxicated.
c. Alcohol intoxication often causes a person to experience emotional changes such as moodiness or
d. Alcohol withdrawal follows the discontinuation of the heavy use of alcohol. 22. George Vaillaint’s study
a. Natural History of Alcoholism reports improved life statements by alcoholics
b. He sought external factors that influence the choice of sobriety
i. Substitute dependency: some new activity to consume all the time that goes into alcoholism
ii. Behavior modification event: reference to the loss of something considered very valuable– realistic
threat– medical complication with immediate consequences
1. Similar to aversion therapy
iii. Enhanced self-esteem: is not an immediate condition but one that evolves
iv. New love relationship: is broadly defined, new spouse or new definition of the relationship with
23. Disulfiram – was once considered the cure for alcohol dependency. It interferes with metabolizing by blocking
the changing of acetaldehyde to acetate. This leaves one with excessive toxic acetaldehyde in one’s system.
Thus they would vomit or gasp for breath if they drank. Useful only if taken regularly.
24. Naltrexone – newer drug that works differently. It prevents feelings of craving. Originally used on heroine
addicts, recently approved for alcoholics. Affects neuron activity likely to be dopamine. Powerful and with
serious side effects or potential for liver damage if heavy doses taken
25. ISI- a method of infusing flavors into alcohol
26. Neal Dow from Maine
a. Believed America was God’s chosen society and the way to enjoy this was to give up alcohol
b. Patriotism and Christianity one and the same
c. 1851 prohibition law in Maine
d. When he was mayor of Portland he raided saloons
e. Dow is considered a hero amongst the temperance world
f. In 1855 12 states and two provinces pass Maine Laws prohibiting sale of alcohol
27. Temperance Tales
a. Popular weapon used by the temperance movement
b. These were novels, plays, illustrated novels, that were entertainment as well as propaganda
1. 18 amendmentFor prohibition more than ending alcohol use disorders e.g. immigration & urbanization
2. 100+ years in the making -- 13 years to repeal
3. Alcohol is at home in water-logged CNS
4. Telescopic drinking careers reflected in various alcohol related diseases? What does this mean? Does this
relate to women?
5. Woodrow Wilson 10. George Washington 15. Whiskey rebellion
6. James Oglethorpe 11. “Pussyfoot” Johnson 16. A S & S
7. Franklin Roosevelt 12. Tied house system 17. 2 types of alcohol
8. Ethan Allen 13. January 20, 1920 disorders diagnosed in
9. Alexander Hamilton 14. McGuffy’s Reader the DSM
• BAC is a measure of % of grams of alcohol per 100 milliliters of blood
• 100 grams = .10
• BAC =
• 0.05 Lowered alertness, release of inhibitions, impaired judgment
• 0.10 Slower reaction times, impaired motor function, less caution
• 0.15 Large, consistent increases in reaction time
• 0.20 Marked depression in sensory and motor capability, intoxication
• 0.25 Severe motor disturbance, staggering, gre