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MGT 243 (7)

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Lehigh University
MGT 243
Douglas Mahony

motivation why do people work & how to get them to work for you • early theories of motivation o Taylor & scientific management • money: employees are economically motivated and will work to earn as much as they can • problem: doesn't always explain human behavior o the Hawthorne studies and the human relations approach • people are motivated by things other than money  they respond to their social environment at work • problem: environmental factors does not always explain human behavior • contemporary theories of motivation o can divide into two broad camps • need theories of motivation • process/cognitive theories of motivation • what is motivation? o defined as a set of energetic forces that originates both within and outside an employee, initiates work related effort, and determines its direction, intensity, and persistence o critical consideration because job performance is largely a function of two factors: • motivation • ability • motivating forces o direction, intensity, & persistence of effort • effort --> performance --> outcome • self set goals  specific & difficult goals • perceived equity • psychological empowerment  meaningfulness, self-determination, competence, & impact • expectancy theory o effort --(expectancy)--> performance --(expectancy)--> outcome (valence) o this is a multiplicative model: thus if E, I, or V is a problem then effort will be expected to be low • what exactly makes some outcomes more 'positively valenced' than others? o in general, outcomes are deemed more attractive when they help satisfy needs • needs theories of note o Maslow's needs hierarchy • physiological • safety • love (social) • esteem • self-actualization o McClelland's needs • achievement • affiliation • power • what can we learn from needs theories? o achievement: strongest measured relationship to performance • risk associated with having high need for achievement  most interested in in personal achievement and less in influencing others  great for early career success but do not always make good managers o power; relatedness/affiliation • we know less about power & affiliation • but, the best managers tend to be high in power and low in affiliation o relationship between one's needs and one's efforts: • emphasis on order/importance of needs varies at individual level- what implications does this have for selection & staffing decisions? • frustration-regression: while it may not work the way Maslow suggests, we know that inability or difficulty achieving higher-order needs may cause shift in importance of lower-order needs • goal setting o goals: accomplish through his or her behavior and actions o goal setting theory: views goals as the primary drivers of the intensity and persistence of effort o not all goals are created equal! o characteristics of effective goals 1. specific and measurable  try to quantify operational goals 1. defined time period  sub-divided goals with time horizons beyond two or three years 1. cover key result areas  guided by choice and clarity 1. challenging but realistic  stretch goals- clear, compelling, often require imagination and innovation to achieve  should fire up the employee! 1. linked to rewards o assigning employees specific and difficult goals results in higher levels of individual performance o specific and difficult goals lead to higher performance whether they are set by your manager or by yourself • subordinate acceptance is critical • goal setting theory and individual performance o why do accepted, specific and difficult goals have such positive effects? • assignment of a specific and difficult goal shapes people's own self-set goals- the internalized goals that people use to monitor their own task progress • goals trigger the creation of task stra
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