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Lecture 10

ANSC 1011 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Colostrum, Weaning, Passive Immunity


Department
Animal Science
Course Code
ANSC 1011
Professor
Bidner
Lecture
10

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DAIRY PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT
OVERVIEW
Newborn calf
Pre-ruminant calf
Post weaning calf
Springing heifer
Lactating cow
Dry cow
oFar off dry cow
oClose up dry cow (transition period)
NEWBORN CALF
Must start breathing
Remove mucous
Stimulate breathing
oFinger or spoon
Disinfect umbilical stump
Feed colostrum promptly
Place in housing area
oHutch or calf crate.
Feeding the Calf: Colostrum
oQuality
Nutrients
Antibodies (immunoglobulins)
oQuantity
2-4 quarts
depends on quality
oTiming
As soon as possible after birth
Colostrum and Passive Immunity
oImmune system of calf
Immature at birth
Incapable of producing antibodies
oCalf is dependent on passive transfer or maternal antibodies from colostrum
oPassive immunity
Antibodies through absorption
Must occur within 24 hours of birth
oSmall intestine of newborn calf
Can absorb intact large molecules (proteins)
oClosure of gut
Loss of capacity to absorb macromolecules
24 hours
oSo—very important to feed as soon as possible.
Calf wont drink?
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oWork with calf, try to get it to suckle
oIf not, use esophageal feeder or stomach tube.
PRE-RUMINANT CALF
Feeding Pre-Ruminant Calf:
oLiquid feeding program
Milk or milk replacer
20% protein, 20% fat usually. Can vary…
Primary source of nutrients
Feed until weaning
Age varies (6-8 weeks)
Wean based on grain consumption
Calf starter: first dry feed (grain)
oPalatability important for maximizing intake
oCoarse textured or pelleted.
Encourage consumption beginning at 3-5 days
oShould be eating some by 7-10 days
oKeep starter fresh
Feed as much as will eat until intake reaches 4-6 lbs. per day
Important for rumen development
WATER
Offer free choice to calves
Water in milk or milk replacer not enough
Increases BW gain, starter intake
Start early; as soon as liquid feeding program begins after colostrum
Make sure calf has clean water at all times.
OTHER MANAGEMENT PRACTICES
Dehorning (disbudding)
Deworming
Vaccination
Grouping by size
oWeighing
oMeasuring height and girth
POST-WEANING
Until 3 months:
oWeaning:
US average is 8 weeks of age
Use starter intake to determine when to wean
oCan continue feeding starter
As much as will eat up to 6 lbs. per day
Provide good quality forage free choice
oTransition important
Don’t change “cold turkey”
3-6 months:
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
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