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Bio Chapter 26 Notes

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Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOL 1202

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Learning ObjectivesChapter 26 Phylogeny and the Tree of LifeConcept 261 Phylogenies show evolutionary relationshipsExplain the following characteristics of the Linaean system of classificationoBinomial nomenclature two part format of the scientific name genus species oHierarchical classification increasingly inclusive categoriesList the major taxonomic categories from most to least inclusive Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus SpeciesExplain how the hierarchical classification system can mirror phylogenetic relationships among organismsoften matches how taxonomists have classified groups of organisms nested within more inclusive groupsConcept 262 Phylogenies are inferred from morphological and molecular dataExplain why it is crucial to distinguish between homology and analogyanalogy arises from convergent evolution rather than shared ancestryExplain why bird and bat wings are homologous as vertebrate forelimbs but analogous as wingsbat wings evolved from limbs to become wings so they are not comparable to bird wingsDefine molecular systematicsExplain some of the problems that systematists may face in carrying out molecular comparisons of nucleic acids The discipline that uses data from DNA and other molecules to determine evolutionary relationships Problems molecular homoplasies analogous structures that arose independently horizontal gene transfer there may be similarities
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