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Lecture16 Genome Evolution

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 3040
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62910African Economyone reason why the economy is so widely discussed is bc of the idea in the 1950s it was believe that Ghana alone had a better prospect economically than KoreaSomehow around 1990s S Korea had an annual GDP of 231 Billion and their population is only about 86million people while Africa with its population of 520 Million and GDP 230 Billion Something went wrong NYT in 1994 they made a statement suggesting that virtually no strategythat African countries have tried to implement whether it is based on encouraging foreign businesses or taking over assets NATIONALIZATION EXPROPORATION whether trying to force industrializationor relying primarily on agriculture NYT argued that none of these strategies worked In 1960 something that came to be known as the Great Bet one Kwame Nkrumah of which 2 countries would be the best post independenceHouphouet Boigny vs Cote DLouire initially Cote DLouire worked leaders stayed in power longer and after leader died civil war and economy suffered When Nkrumah died the econ suffered but Ghana is often given praise for its high econ and poli progressMarxist Strategy Congo Brazzaville Tanzania EthiopiaCapitalist Mauritius one of better performing poli and econ BotswanaSouth Africa Gabon and KenyaGrowth vs Developmentgrowth is simply when numbers risedevelopment is somewhat different in the sense that it requires the growth you have achieved somehow leads to an enrichment an improvement bettermenthow it affects NORMALlower level of societyGreater poli stability improved macroeconomic performance abandoning socialismfree market enterpriseForeign Affairs magazine july2008 a story about Kenya Fear and Loathing in Nairobi The Challenge of Reconciliationnot always easy to have democracy bc of major groups in society Mugabe uber Allesthe tyranny of unity in Zimbabwezimbabwe had elections in 2008 that didnt go well and following the election the opposition decided to form another govt Morgay Tsuangaraivs Mugabepres Remained and allowed pm Nigeria troubled Delta Region goodluck johnathanthey are hoping that a newoiloil spill daily in NigeriaZimbabweEconomist magazineDirty Diamonds shooting of a dissident in Rawanda 63010Apartheid exam queswhat happened duringwhat happened since why should they get so excited about throwing the world cup in SA Its institutionalized racism before these laws were put in place there was so much discriminationwhites felt superior The whites essentially came from the Netherlands England France Germany Anglo Boer War where the English fought against the dutch The reason for this is bc the whites were settled inSA came to find the land to be so valuable the climate to be so inviting the local population somewhat disorganized and for all of these factors they decided to estb Political control of the country Apartheidvarious races need to live apart from each other Came to exist in 2 partsGrand Apartheid the big rules of govt this includes something that came to be know as the Pass Laws which is simply the idea that before you visita white area they must have some permission slip no voting and no representationalthough the blacks were a huge majority in SA it did not have the right to work and for that reason they had no representation in parliament Voting was reserved initially only for whites the gradually for Asiansidians and also later on the Coloreds Biracial BANTUSTANS Homelands policystrategy designed to deny blacks SA citizenship by forcing them to live in isolated unproductive and distant areas and claim that those areas had become independent countries about 10 Bantustans existed Distributing land 70 of pop control 30 of the land while white minority dominated when it came to land ownershipPetit Apartheid smallertiny rules that effected ones interaction on a daily basis Much of this policy began in 1948 South African govt didnt have the power to fully implement them bc among these policys was one which suggested that there should be no interracial sex hard to prevent bc coloreds came to existbiracial The party that governs south Africa today was founded in 1912 Led to nelson mandella to be put in jail he became symbol of black oppression there were several other blacks that helped to lead the majority population in the country Bc all other avenues of poli participation had been closed religion came the only way to congregateARCH BISHOP DESMOND TUTU religion played a key role in helping to bring about the end of Apartheid but the struggle wasnt limited to religion it also spread across the society and there were several incidents that happened since 1940 1960 Sharperville Massacre where 60 blacks were slaughtered by white policemen1976Soweto Riots students protested against the use of dutch language as the medium for their education leaderSteve Biko was put in jail and was found dead laterThose against the system had to seek refuge abroad
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