Class Notes (808,703)
United States (313,202)
BIOL 3040 (27)
All (12)

Ch 12 Objectives

4 Pages
Unlock Document

Louisiana State University
Biological Sciences
BIOL 3040

Chapter Learning ObjectivesChapter 12 Major Transitions121 Overview of Major TransitionsList the major transitions in the evolution of life on EarthoThe origin of self replicating molecules capable of heredityoThe transition from RNA as both catalyst and genetic material to a division of labor with protein as catalyst and DNA as genetic materialoThe origin of the first cellsoThe emergence of eukaryotic cellsoThe evolution of sexual reproductionoEvolution of multicellular organisms from singlecelled ancestorsoEvolution of developmental complexity within multicellular organismsoEvolution of individuality including the evolution of germ cells a specialized line of cells that became gametesoEvolution of groups including complex societiesoEvolution of eusocial societies like those seen in some species of bees ants and wasps with a division of labor and sterile workersDescribe the three processes that occur during these transitionsoIndividuals give up the ability to reproduce independently and they join together to form a larger grouping that shares reproductionSolitary individuals started living together in colonial groupsoOnce individuals aggregate into higherlevel groupings they can take advantage of economies of scale and efficiencies of specializationEconomies of scale arise when groups can perform tasks more efficiently than single individuals or when groups can do things that lone individuals cannot do at alloAggregation and specialization facilitate changes in information technologies Organisms develop new and increasingly efficient ways to acquire process transmit and store information Once group living becomes commonplace organisms can learn about their environments through social learning rather than merely by trialanderror learningList the steps of a major transition and give an example of how it would be difficult to reverseoIndividual replicators band together to form a new highlevel individual which then can replicate more effectively The new individual can reproduce faster and more efficiently due to economy of scale division of labor and improved information processingoThis process is difficult to reverse due to genetic imprinting process in which alleles are differentially expressed according to whether they are inherited from the mother or from the father122 Major Transition The Evolution of the Eukaryotic CellDescribe the lines of evidence supporting the ideas that either archaea or bacteria were the most recent common ancestor of the eukaryotesoEukaryotic informational genesgenes associated with transcription and translationare most closely related to archaeal genes On the other hand operational genes associated with metabolic processes cell membrane
More Less

Related notes for BIOL 3040

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.