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Lecture 5

BIOL 1201 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Enzyme, Endergonic Reaction, Competitive Inhibition

Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOL 1201
E William Wischusen

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I. Chemical Reactions
a. Occur anytime two or more atoms, ions, or molecules collide in such a way
that they produce a new substance
b. Laws of thermodynamics
a.1. Energy can neither be created nor destroyed only converted from one
form to another
a.2. When converting energy from one form to another the amount of
useful energy decreases
b. Free energy & chemical reactions
a.1. Spontaneous
a.1.a. Release free energy (exergonic)
a.1.b. Change in free energy is negative
a.1.c. Enthalpy decreases entropy increases (-)=(-)(+)
a.2. Non-spontaneous
a.1.a. Require free energy (endergonic)
a.1.b. Enthalpy increases entropy decreases (+)=(+)(+)
a.1.c. Change in free energy is positive
a.2. Formula
a.1.a.a. G= Free energy
a.1.a.b. H= Enthalpy
a.1.a.a.i. The heat energy of the system (not temperature)
a.1.a.b. T= temperature (K)
a.1.a.c. S=entropy
a.1.a.a.i. A measure of disorder
a.1.a.a.ii. Greater disorder = greater entropy
I. Living vs. Non-Living
Living Non-Living
Highly organized Less organized
High energy Lower energy
fast Very slow
a. How do living systems accomplish this?
1. External energy source
2. Organic catalysts (enzymes)
b. Enzymes (see figure 1)
1. Almost all are proteins
1.a.Catalytic RNA's ribozymes
2. Large globular proteins
3. Organic catalysts
1.a.Speed up rate of reaction but are not used up
2. Induced-fit model
1.a.The substrate(reactants) binds to the active site (enzyme)
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