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Lecture 16

BIOL 1201 Lecture Notes - Lecture 16: Cleavage Furrow, Dna Supercoil, Cell Membrane

Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOL 1201
Bill Wischusen

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Two steps:
1) Karyokinesis: division of nucleus (mitosis, meiosis)
2) Cytokinesis: division of cytoplasm
Can occur by one of two different mechanisms
**Mitosis: identical daughter cells
**Meiosis: non-identical daughter cells
Chromosome structure:
DNA (genetic material) + proteins
* During Interphase: a cell that is about to divide grows and copies its chromosomes in
preparation for cell division
G1 phase: 1st gap; grows
S phase: synthesis; chromosomes are only duplicated in this phase
G2: 2nd gap; grows
M: divides
[Clicker]: A cell in G2 of interphase will have how much DNA compared to the same cell when it was in
G1 interphase? Twice as many
[Clicker]: A cell in G2 of interphase will have how many chromosomes compared to the same cell when
it was in G1 interphase? Same amount; same number of chromosome; difference of DNA
* During cell division:
A chromosome may consist of one (unreplicated) or two (replicated) molecules of DNA, which are
identical to each other.
Chromatid: the entire complex of DNA and proteins that is the building material of chromosomes
Centromere: a region containing specific DNA sequences where the chromatid is attached most
closely to its sister chromatid
Each sister chromatid has a centromere
Kinetochores: a structure of proteins associated with specific sections of chromosomal DNA at
each centromere
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