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Lecture 5

BIOL 1201 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Thromboxane A2, Vasospasm, Cardiac Muscle

Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOL 1201
Bill Wischusen

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1. When a platelet contacts a damaged blood vessel, it is stimulated to release thromboxane
A2. Thromboxane A2 in turn stimulates vascular spasm and attracts additional platelets
to the injured site. In this example thromboxane A2 is acting as: local signal molecule.
2. How many radio stations are in this room right now? Many
3. Based on your understanding of membrane permeability, the signal molecules (ligands)
binding to cytoplasmic receptors are? Non-polar molecules
4. The signal molecule Leptin is 16,000 Da protein. Where would you expect to find the
receptors for this molecule? The cell membrane
5. Assuming there are 100 different cell signaling compounds in your body. What is the
minimum number of receptors that your body needs to make? 100
6. What type of molecule is going to allow for the specificity to bind only one ligand?
Protein (HIGHLY specific)
7. If molecule A activates 100 molecules of B and B activates 100 molecules of C, how
many molecules of C will be activated by 1 molecule of A? 10,000
8. For 1 molecule of epinephrine (1), how many glucose (100) molecules do I produce? 100
9. When epinephrine binds to cardiac muscle cells, it speeds their contraction. When it
binds to muscle cells of the small intestine, it inhibits their contraction. How can the same
hormone have different effects on different muscle cells? The two types of muscle cells
have different signal-transduction pathways for epinephrine and thus have different
cellular responses.
10. During daylight hours, how much Pr is there compared to Pfr? Small amount
11. At the end of a long night, how much Pr Is there compared to Pfr? Large amount
12. AT the end of a short night how much Pr wis there compared to Pfr? Medium amount
13. Is this a long night or short night plant? long night
14. Will A or B flower? Neither A or B
15. Will A flower? No (third bar in image above)
16. Will B flower? (B is third bar above) Yes.
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