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Lecture 1

BIOL 1201 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Valence Electron, Molar Concentration, Chemical Polarity

Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOL 1201
Bill Wischusen

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Chapter One
What is Science?
A body of knowledge
An approach to understanding nature
What do Scientists do?
Make observations
Attempt to discern patterns
Assume that the future is like the past
Sun will always rise in the East I think
Creates a problem not 100% sure
Scientific Method?
New observations can be in agreement with our model, or the new observations
can disagree with the model and force me to change the model
If we cant observe something either directly or indirectly, we cant study it
Either way, model will become better and more accurate
What Happens as a Result of this Process?
Hypothesis Nothing more than an explanation for something that has not
been tested. No weight of validity (could be right or wrong). What most
people mean when they say they have a theory
Theory Hypothesis thats been tested many times and can be supported
by some weight of evidence May not be perfect, but still really accurate.
Has the weight of evidence.
Law Nothing more than a theory thats been tested even more and is
always supported.
What is Biology?
What is Life?
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Characteristics of Living Systems
Organization (molecular and tissue all the way to populations and
Energy Use (organization always costs something food keeps us organized
Development (organism will change over time machines will stay the same
way its entire life)
Reproduction (all living beings have the ability to reproduce)
Evolve (population scale, change not during the lifetime of the individual, but
in between generations)
Respond to the environment (external stimuli)
Being alive means having to do all of these characteristics together being able
to possess SOME does not mean youre alive
What determines Solubility?
Like dissolves like
Like in terms of polarity
Polar solutes dissolve in polar solvents
Cannot go through the cell membrane
Non-polar solutes dissolved in non-polar solvents
Goes through the cell membrane
(Puts testosterone in armpits because itll get into his blood stream but if
anyone else touched him, theyd get it too)
How do you know if a molecule is polar or non-polar?
is in nature polar (one side positive, one side negative charge has been
Pure covalent (hydrogen and hydrogen, nitrogen and nitrogen, etc.) are NON-
Carbon and Oxygen? Polar-covalent (difference in electronegativitys)
Scale of Nature
What scales are biologists interested in?
Atomic 10-8 meters
Community/Ecosystem -- 106 meters
Approaches to Biology
Reductionist Approach Take the system apart and reduce it to the smallest
parts, then once you understand the structure and function individually, put the
parts back together
Wholist Approach Study all parts in tact, specific behaviors only happen when
the system is intact, some phenomenons that only occur when things are all
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Chapter 2
Smallest unit of matter separable by normal chemical means
The smallest unit of matter that retains all the properties of that element
Biologically, why is atomic structure important?
Organisms are composed largely of 11 basic elements -- the boring ones
Value for an average human is $930.00 (~1,000), but would just be a big blob of
Whats the difference between those chemicals and you?
Im highly organized (DNA)
Subatomic Particles
Particles Mass Charge
Proton 1 Dalton +1
Neutron 1 Dalton 0
Electrons ~0 Daltons -1
Atomic Number and Mass
Atomic Number the number of protons in an atom Its what defines the
Atomic Mass the number of protons and neutrons in an atom
Isotopes variants of an atom, having a different atomic mass (neutrons)
Element P N E A# A.M.
Hydrogen 1 0 1 1 1
Helium 2 2 2 2 4
Carbon 6 6 6 6 12
Carbon14 6 8 6 6 14
(Still carbon because of the atomic number, just bigger mass)
Nitrogen 7 7 7 7 14
Oxygen 8 8 8 8 16
The number of electrons that need to be gained OR lost to fill the outer shell of
Also predicts the number of bonds that an atom will form
Hydrogen has one electron; it can either gain an electron to have a full
outer shell, or can lose one to become a proton Itll do both
Helium Noble gases don’t want to bond with any other elements (their
electrons are already full)
Figure 2.5
Carbon will either gain 4 or lose 4, it will also do both
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