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Lecture 3

BIOL 1201 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Abo Blood Group System, Spindle Checkpoint, Rh Blood Group System

Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOL 1201
Bill Wischusen

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Learning Objectives Number 3
Cell Division
Fig. 12.4, 12.5, 12.6, 12.7, 12.8, 12.10 and 12.15
Fig. 13.7,13.8 and 13.9
Be sure you can complete the worksheets on Cell Division.
Review the material in the Cell Division Summary sheet.
Centromeres: Area of attachment between two sister chromatids.
Kinetochores: structure of proteins and specific sections of chromosomal
DNA at the centromere. Point of attachment for microtubules of the spindle.
Chromatids: two copies of a duplicated chromosome.
Spindle apparatus: formed from microtubules extending from the two
centrosomes. As centrosomes move away from each other the microtubules
Cell cycle and control checkpoints
Why are there checkpoints? What do they check for?
Stop and go-ahead signals regulate the cycle.
G1- check to see if DNA is damaged.
G2 check to see if DNA is replicated properly.
M spindle assembly checkpoint, check for alignment of
What occurs in G1, S and G2 phases?
G1: when synthesis of cell components occurs
o Increase in number of organelles
S: synthesis (replication of DNA). Doubling of the genetic material.
G2: centrioles replicate in animal cells. Structure for cytokinesis put
in place.
What is Go?
non0dividing phase. Most cells in the human body are non-dividing.
What is the purpose of the different types of cell division?
Mitosis: produce daughter cells that have identical genetic
o Occurs in somatic cells.
Meiosis: cell division for gamete production. In specialized tissues.
Produces cells with the 1n chromosome number.
Haploid 1 set of chromosomes
Diploid 2 sets of chromosomes, one from each parent.
Mitosis Events in each phase
12.7 in book.
Cell plate formation in cytokinesis occurs in plants.
Meiosis Events in each phase
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What are the number of chromatids, DNA content, number of chromosomes
Mitosis: start with diploid, end with diploid.
ABO and Rh blood groups
Know the genetics/inheritance of these phenotypes.
Human ABO blood groups
Multiple alleles IA, IB, i, (IO) [these are the genotypes]
Phenotypes - A, B, AB, O
o IA is codominant with IB
o IA and IB is dominant to i (IO)
RH Factor Genetics
Rh factor is an antigen on RBCs
D is dominant; d is recessive
Genotypes DD or Dd phenotype Rh +
Genotype dd phenotype Rh
o Lacks the Rh antigen
Are the genes for the ABO and Rh blood groups on the same chromosome?
Be able to do problems on paternity exclusion
Transfusions which combinations of donor and recipient blood groups are
Fig. 14.11, p. 946
Fig. 15.6, 15.7, 15.8
Inheritance of X-linked and Y-linked traits
- examples from lecture, e.g. color blindness, hairy ear rims,
What are the differences between X and Y chromosomes? Do they each
have the same genes?
Y: always passed from father to son
X: inherited from mother (sons or daughters) or father (daughters)
Father determines the sex of the child.
Mother determines whether a son displays an X-linked trait.
X and Y chromosomes do NOT have the same genes.
o Estimated 78 genes on the Y chromosomes
o Testis determining factor; hairy ear rims.
o X: 1,098 genes identified; 168 Mendelian diseases
Color blindness, etc.
Know how to do Punnet squares for X-linked traits.
You need to keep track of the sex chromosomes whereas for autosomal
traits the sex chromosomes can be ignored.
Sex determination and inheritance
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Barr bodies / Inactivated X chromosomes (heterochromatin). Be able to
relate the number of Barr bodies observed to the number of X chromosomes
an individual has.
Barr Body: inactivation of one x chromosome
Heterochromatic tightly coiled inactive DNA
Only 1 X chromosome is active in any given cell
Cells of woman are a mosaic for genes on the X chromosome
o Calico cats has to do with fur color.
What are karyotypes? Be able to identify different conditions based on
viewing the karyotype
Examples of X-chromosome inactivation and the fur color patterns of
tortoiseshell cats (for example Fig. 15.8). What is the sex of most cats
displaying the tortoiseshell pattern? Why?
Female: 2 X chromosomes
Males would have to have more than 1 X chromosome.
Mendelian Inheritance
The terminology for the generations that are followed in the crosses: P, F1
and F2
P: parental
F1: filial one offspring of the parental generation hybrids
F2: filial two offspring of cross between F1 (hybrid) individuals
What is meant by a true-breeding lineage?
Referring to organisms that produce offspring of the same variety
over many generations of self-pollination
Mendelian segregation Fig. 15.2
Test Crosses Know what a test cross is and why it is performed.
Test Cross: breeding an organism of unknown genotype with a
homozygous recessive individual to determine the unknown
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