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Lecture 9

BIOL 1201 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Atp Synthase, Intermembrane Space, Potential GradientPremium


Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOL 1201
Professor
Moroney, James
Lecture
9

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BIOL 1201-Lecture 9-Respiration
Cellular Respiration
Breakdown sugars, release energy
Energy is used to form ATP
Sugars formed by photosynthesis
Three Main Parts:
oGlycolysis
oKrebs Cycle:
Tabulation of Energy Molecules
From two pyruvates
oElectron Transport Chain
Inner membrane mitochondria
Electrons come from NADH and go to O2 giving H2O and NAD+
The electron transport proteins are in the inner mitochondrial membrane
The last protein, cytochrome gives electrons to O2
Another protein, ATP synthase, is needed to make ATP
Fig. 9.13, 9.15
Making ATP:
Oxidation-reduction reactions transfer protons from the matrix to
the intermembrane space
This produces an electrochemical potential gradient (more H+
outside, more + outside)
Protons are transported through the ATP synthase which captures
energy to make ATP (1 NADH = 3 ATP; 1 FADH2 = 2 ATP
Fig: 9.14, 9.15
Aerobic Respiration
Glucose + O2 to CO2 plus H2O
**KNOW HOW TO BALANCE THE CARBONS**
Glucose has 6 carbons --- so one glucose produces 6 CO2 molecules
Respiration involves many steps
Produces the high energy molecules NADH and ATP
NAD+ picks up electrons from glucose during glycolysis and the Krebs cycle forming
NADH
Carbon donates electrons to O2 forming H2O
Consumes glucose and O2
The energy released can make 36 ATP from ADP and phosphate
Fermintation
Mitochondrion (in eukaryotic cells) cannot “process” pyruvate without O2
Pyruvate is converted to either lactic acid or ethanol with oxidation of NADH
Fermentation nets 2 ATP per molecule of glucose
Fermentation regenerates NAD to permit continuation of glycolysis
Muscles can do lactic acid fermentation but the brain cannot do fermentation
Fermentation nets 2 ATP per molecule of glucose compared with 36 for aerobic
respiration
Some bacteria are anaerobes - they only live in the absence of O2 - they do fermentation
oAlcoholic fermentation examples: yeast, plant roots
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