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Lecture 10

BIOL 1201 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Cellular Respiration, Citric Acid Cycle, Acetyl-CoaPremium


Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOL 1201
Professor
Moroney, James
Lecture
10

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BIOL 1201-Lecture 10- Cellular Respiration continued…
Cellular Respiration
is a catabolic pathway when oxygen is consumed as a reactant along with the organic
fuel.
In cellular respiration, sugars are broken down and energy is released in the form of ATP.
Cellular respiration can be broken down into three main parts: glycolysis, krebs cycle,
and the electron transport chain
Glycolysis
is the splitting of glucose into pyruvate. This occurs in all living cells.
In glycolysis, glucose (6 carbons) are transferred into 2 pyruvates (3 carbons each).
Then, the 2 pyruvates are transferred to four acetyl CoA (2 carbons each) and 2 carbon
dioxide molecules are released. From there, four carbon dioxide molecules are released.
Krebs Cycle
is a chemical cycle involving eight steps that completes the metabolic breakdown of
glucose molecules to carbon dioxide.
occurs within the mitochondrion.
The Electron Transport Chain
is a sequence of electron carrier molecules that shuttle electrons during the redox
reactions that release energy used to make ATP.
Aerobic Respiration produces the high energy molecules NADH and ATP. NAD+ picks
up electrons from glucose during glycolysis and the Krebs cycle forming NADH.
NADH donates electrons to oxygen forming water.
During aerobic respiration the energy released can make 36 ATP from ADP and
phosphate.
From aerobic respiration, CO2 and water are produced.
Redox Reactions:
Reduction = Electrons Gained
Oxidation = Electrons Lost
Compounds with the more double bonds are more oxidized. Compounds with less
double bonds are more reduced.
Fermentation
is a catabolic process when a partial degradation of sugars occur without the use of
oxygen. (Unlike Cellular Respiration)
There are two types of fermentation:
Alcohol Fermentation occurs when pyruvate is converted to ethanol in two steps.
Lactic Acid Fermentation occurs when the pyruvate is reduced directly by NADH
to form lactate as an end product with no release of carbon dioxide.
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