BIOL 1201 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Cellular Respiration, Citric Acid Cycle, Acetyl-CoaPremium
Course CodeBIOL 1201
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BIOL 1201-Lecture 10- Cellular Respiration continued…
● is a catabolic pathway when oxygen is consumed as a reactant along with the organic
● In cellular respiration, sugars are broken down and energy is released in the form of ATP.
● Cellular respiration can be broken down into three main parts: glycolysis, krebs cycle,
and the electron transport chain
● is the splitting of glucose into pyruvate. This occurs in all living cells.
● In glycolysis, glucose (6 carbons) are transferred into 2 pyruvates (3 carbons each).
Then, the 2 pyruvates are transferred to four acetyl CoA (2 carbons each) and 2 carbon
dioxide molecules are released. From there, four carbon dioxide molecules are released.
● is a chemical cycle involving eight steps that completes the metabolic breakdown of
glucose molecules to carbon dioxide.
● occurs within the mitochondrion.
The Electron Transport Chain
● is a sequence of electron carrier molecules that shuttle electrons during the redox
reactions that release energy used to make ATP.
● Aerobic Respiration produces the high energy molecules NADH and ATP. NAD+ picks
up electrons from glucose during glycolysis and the Krebs cycle forming NADH.
● NADH donates electrons to oxygen forming water.
● During aerobic respiration the energy released can make 36 ATP from ADP and
● From aerobic respiration, CO2 and water are produced.
● Reduction = Electrons Gained
● Oxidation = Electrons Lost
● Compounds with the more double bonds are more oxidized. Compounds with less
double bonds are more reduced.
● is a catabolic process when a partial degradation of sugars occur without the use of
oxygen. (Unlike Cellular Respiration)
● There are two types of fermentation:
○ Alcohol Fermentation occurs when pyruvate is converted to ethanol in two steps.
○ Lactic Acid Fermentation occurs when the pyruvate is reduced directly by NADH
to form lactate as an end product with no release of carbon dioxide.
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