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Lecture 1

BIOL 1201 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Chemical Formula, Chitin, Osmosis

Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOL 1201
Moroney, James

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Study Guide #1 for Biology 1201, section 5
Objectives: Students should be able to dene and
understand the following terms and concepts.
Chapter 1, pages 1-27
Classication (Figure 1.14)
don’t know poop cuz our fake
genius sucks
domain kingdom phylum class order family
genus species
important characteristics used to classify organisms:
oprokaryotic vs. eukaryotic
oaerobic vs. anaerobic
oautotrophic vs. heterotrophic
Major lineages (Figure 1.15)
Three domains of life:
oBacteria& archae are prokaryotic
oEukarya- protists, plantae, fungi and animalia are
all eukaryotic
Scientic Method (pages 18-23)
Making observations- recorded observation are data
Inductive reasoning- from a set of generalizations to a
Deductive reasoning- generally used after the
hypotheses is formed
A hypotheses must be testable and falsiable

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Controlled experiment- compares an experimental
group to a control group; control groups di9er in only
one factor
A theory is much broader in scope than a hypotheses, it
is general enough to spin o9 many hypotheses, and it is
supported by a much greater body of evidence
Test your understanding questions 5, 6, 8, 10 (page 27)
Chapter 2, pages 30-45
Elements and Compounds (Table 2.1)
Atomic Number and Atomic Mass
Atomic number- number of protons (under the letters)
Mass number- sum of protons and neutrons (top left
Atomic mass- approximation of the total mass
Some atoms have more neutrons than others of
the same element these are call isotopes
A radioactive isotope, one in which the nucleus
decays spontaneously, is naturally occurring
oDetected by Geiger counters, scintillation
counters, and x-ray lm
Valence and bonding particularly the bonding properties of
C, N, O, Na, Cl, H, P, K and S **(Figure 2.9)**
Be sure to understand gure Figure 2.9! This gure
explains bonding patterns. See me if you do not

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understand how this gure explains chemical
Covalent bonds, ionic bonds, polar covalent bonds
(Figures 2.11, 2.12, 2.13, 2.14)
Covalent Bonds - atoms share electrons equally
Polar Covalent Bonds - atoms share electrons unequally
Ionic Bonds - electrons transferred
Shape of compounds (Figure 2.16)
Get 3-dimensional! (Figure 2.17)
Test your understanding questions 2, 3, 5, 6, 8 (pages 44-45)
Chapter 3, pages 46-57
Water is a bent, polar molecule
Why water is a bent polar molecule (Figure 2.17 (again)).
Make sure to understand why water is bent.
Two lone electrons of the oxygen are pushing away the
positive hydrogen which makes it bent
Hydrogen bonds (Figure 3.2)
Properties of water: surface tension, high specic heat,
cohesion, excellent solvent (Figures 3.4, 3.6, 3.7)
pH (Figure 3.10)
Anything that increases the h+ concentration is an acid
Anything that increases the oh concentration is a base
Molecular structure
Metabolic reactions
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