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Lecture 2

BIOL 1201 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Vascular Bundle, Oxaloacetic Acid, Transport Protein


Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOL 1201
Professor
Moroney, James
Lecture
2

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Introduction to Metabolism 14:44
Metabolism
Metabolism is the reactions that occur in cells
Cells require a constant input of energy for reactions
We hold together from the energy we get from food
Metabolic reactions can require energy (endergonic) or release energy
(exergonic) **know for exam 2
Endergonic reaction: a reaction that requires energy from the surroundings
to occur.
Example: DNA synthesis
Exergonic reaction: a reaction that releases energy when it takes place.
Example 1: ATP cleavage to ADP and Pi
Example 2: Glucose + O2 to CO2 and water
Glucose very high energy molecule
An important exergonic reaction is hydrolysis of ATP to ADP and phosphate.
(nucleotide in pic vvv)
ATP  ADP + Pi + energy
FIGURE 8.11 IS IMPORTANT
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You’re working and putting your deposits in your bank account then you go
and spend it
ADP missing just one phosphate, ADP is remade into ATP, it’s a cycle
ATP is being used to build things then forms ADP to rebuild ATP
Coupled Reactions
In a coupled reaction, an unfavorable reaction (endergonic reaction) is linked
to a very favorable reaction (exergonic reaction) such as ATP cleavage.
The favorable cleavage of ATP allows the unfavorable reaction to proceed.
Unfavorable + cleavage of ATP
Coupled Reaction Example
Glutamate + NH3  Glutamine (unfavorable)
ATP  ADP + Pi (favorable)
The coupled reaction:
Glutamate + NH3 +ATP Glutamine + ADP +Pi
The coupled reaction takes place and the cell can make glutamine.
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Enzymes and Metabolism
Enzymes are biological catalysts
Enzymes are proteins
Enzymes depend on their shape for activity
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