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Lecture 2

BIOL 1201 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Chemical Polarity, Electronegativity, Chemical Formula

Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOL 1201
E William Wischusen

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I. Electronegativity
a. Increases as we go left to right on periodic table
b. Noble gases have a electronegativity of 0
c. Increases bottom from top (top is the highest)
II. Bonds
a. Ionic
a.i. Difference is 1.7 or greater
b. Covalent (non-polar)
a.i. Difference is less than 0.5
b. Polar covalent
a.i. Difference is greater than 0.5 but less than 1.7
II. How do bonds influences the polarity of a molecule?
a. Molecules which contain numerous ionic bonds will be polar
b. Molecules which contain numerous polar covalent bonds will be polar (few exceptions)
c. Molecules which contain numerous covalent bonds will be non-polar
II. Weak Bonds
a. Bonds which are NOT involved in making a compound
a.i. Hydrogen bonds
a.i.1. Non-polar molecules group together to get away from water
a.i.2. Weak attractions between atoms on different molecules or different
parts of a large molecule
a.i.3. Occur between molecules that have polar covalent to ionic bonds
a.i.4. ALWAYS involve hydrogen
a.ii. Hydrophobic interactions
a.i.1. Water fearing interaction
a.ii. Van Deer Waals
II. Molecules
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