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Lecture 2

BIOL 1202 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Orthomyxoviridae, Varicella Zoster Virus, Dna Virus

Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOL 1202

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I. Evidence Best Explained by Theory of Evolution
i. Fossil record
i. Evidence of species existed in the past that don't exist today
ii. Comparative anatomy
Analogous vs. homologous structures
Homologous = common ancestry
Homologous structures: different environmental forces favor
changes in structures in related organisms
= divergent evolution
Analogous structures = convergent evolution
Similar environmental forces select for similar structures in
unrelated organisms
Developmental biology
Biochemical and Genetic analyses
i. Evidence best explained by theory of evolution
Common use and similarities of DNA, RNA, amino acids,
ribosomes, genetic code, ATP, electron carriers, electron transport
systems, etc…
Correlation of DNA, proteins, etc. with relatedness of species
3 Types of Natural Selection
- Directional selection
- Stabilizing selection
- Disruptive selection (diversifying)
Systematics: Seeking order amidst diversity
- All living things can be classified as a prokaryote and a eukaryote
- We subdivide the species of eukaryotes and prokaryotes into kingdoms
- The three multicellular kingdoms are:
- Plants
- Animals
- Fungi
- Protists are unicellular eukaryotes
- 3 Domains
- The three domains and the kingdoms within them each have observably different attributes
that define them
- 2 Billion years ago first prokaryotes become the first eukaryotes
- Archaea and eukaryotes more closely related than either are to bacteria
Taxonomic categories
- The organization of taxonomic grouping arranges organisms in sets
- Each set is then grouped with other sets into a larger set
- The major taxonomic categories from most inclusive (biggest set) to least inclusive (smallest
set) are:
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