COMD 4380 Lecture Notes - Lecture 13: North American English, Epenthesis, African American Vernacular English

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22 Feb 2015
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Chapter 3: Phonological Development (BK PGS 52 – 85)
Sound vs. Phoneme Symbol
A phoneme is a complex of acoustic units: acoustic energy, aspiration/friction,
frequency, duration
There is not a one-to-one correspondence between the “complex” and humans
categorical perception of a phoneme
Instead of the phoneme complex constantly varies
Humans perceive clusters of the variations as one phoneme or another
Descriptive Features of Phonemes
Descriptive features are used to classify sounds in terms of the source and shape of the
vocal tract or production (articulatory phonetics).
Vowels: unobstructed source
Place: high/low, front/Central/back
Tension: tense/lax, rounded/un-rounded
Consonants: place, manner, voicing
Place:
bilabial (two lips): b, p, m
labiodental (lip teeth): v, f
interdental (between teeth): th
alveolar (on the alveolar ridge behind the teeth): t, d
palatal (on the palate or roof of mouth): sh, z, dge, ch
velar (on the soft palate): k, g, ng
glottal (back of the throat): h
Manner:
stops (stops airflow): p, b, t
fricatives (reduced airflow, causes friction): f, v, s, z
affricative (brief stop followed by a fricative): ch, dge
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nasals (voiced through the nose): m, n, ng
glides (semi-vowels): j, w
liquids (voiced consonant around the tongue): r, l
Voicing:
voiced
unvoiced
Bolded on test, rest is just good to know; covered more in articulation and phonetics
Other Terms Related to the Phoneme Complex
Phonemes vs. phones/allophones
phoneme is that the category (/r/)
phones are the specific way phonemes are pronounced
allophones are variations on the production of phones
Minimal pair
two word pairs that very in only one phoneme production and the meaning
changes
thigh/thy; bit/bet; pin/pen
Free variation
applies to phones or allophones
means that they are free to vary in their production
Phonotactics
constraints on phoneme order
for example English words don’t start with pf nor would they and in
vkd
Super-segmental
voice, pitch, loudness, timing
Intonational contour
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prosody or melody
Infant Speech Perception
When children come to perceive different phonemes in speech
Methods for Examining Infants’ Speech Perception
1. high amplitude sucking (H.A.S.)
child sucks on pacifier
sucking causes the phoneme to be produced
perception of phoneme is determined by level of excitability
category discrimination (phoneme discrimination) is determined by
excitability vs. habituation
child is exposed to phoneme
when child is habituated to particular phoneme (sucks on pacifier
more slowly) a new phoneme is produced
if the child perceives a difference, rate of sucking on the pacifier
increases
if the perceived difference is slight, the increase in sucking will be
slight and the child will habituate rapidly
2. head turning preference procedure (H.P.P.)
This procedure is used to examine phoneme segmentation abilities and statistical
learning
for testing children 4+ mos. old
child sits on parents lap
sounds and lights are presented to left and right corner of the room in front of the
child
time spent looking at corner is interpreted as attending/interest
Developmental Milestones of Infant Perception
newborn: prefers mother’s voice to others; prefers native-language over non-
native language
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