History Final Notes

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15 Mar 2019
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History Final Notes:
You better get and A on this test or ELSE!!!!
* Christianity Institutionalized
- the Byzantine empire and rise of the Papacy
* What is the post classical world?
- begins with the fall of the Roman empire and Han dynasty
- 500 AD-1450/1500 AD
* 2 distinguishable features
1) world network- goods were transmitted, world trade network (gun powder)
2) spread of world’s major religions
- Christianity
- Buddhism
- Islam
* spread not just in their empires; spread into other empire
* Real world travelers
1) Ibn Battuta- traveled from one end of globe to the other (motivated by
religion)
2) Marco Polo- traveled to China
* Byzantine Empire
-in Constantanoble
- Byzantine Empire (330-1453)
- Justinian (527-565)
- Justinian Law code
- recaptured Italy from goths
- Justinian retakes Italy back
- enemies were Slads (Sladics were German?)
- enemies whittled away at the rest of the Roman empire
- dominant language and culture was Greek
- emperors were assassinated and army chose next one
- candidates won by hand clap
- complete monarchy
* Visitine
- over bureaucratic
* Justinian’s law code
- took pages of works from lawyers
- used to train lawyers for internal roles
- predominately Christian
*Byzantine Church and State
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- Caesaro-Papism
- emperor headed church
- Patriarch
- under emperor
- Rome, Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem, and Constantanoble
- Iconoclasm (742-842)
- worshiping images or icons
* Byzantine emperor Leo III (7171-741)
- supports icons and Pope reacts against
- led 2 churched splitting apart
* Great Schism (1054)
1) church of right beliefs
2) universal church
- church of Hagia Sophia- built by Justinian
- largest structure in the world
* Western Christendom and Rise of Papacy
* Early Monasticism
- Simeon Stylites- climbed/ lived on pillar for 40 years
- self torture
- acting like cows
- walking around with weights on neck
* Later Monasticism
- monasteries and abbots (head monk)
- the Benedictine Rule
- constitution for monks
1) vow of chastity
2) vow of poverty
3) labor
4) religious devotion
5) obey higher authority
- hours each day in prayer
- copied manuscripts
- bible
- early church fathers, etc.
- 3 benefits
- preserved classical writings
- provided schools
- contribute to growth of capital power
* Pope Gregory I “the Great” (ca. 540- 604)
- the pope
- ways that made him and the church great
1) theology- introduced purgatory, punishment for sins, etc.
2) built wealth
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3) made very effective use of menacism
4) diplomacy
- penance
- purgatory
- Miracles of the Saints
- Administrator
- monasteries and missionary work
* Life and times of Muhammad
- Jahiliyya or “the time of ignorance”
- anything before this time wasn’t worth writing down
- Felix Arabia or “Happy Arabia”
- trading post between west and east
- Nabataeans- capital- Petra (modern Jordan)- made out of rock faces
- Khaznan- treasury (most famous)
- baetyls and astral religion- worshiped rectangular stone blacks with faces
(baetyl)
* Muhammad ibn Abdullah (570-632)- born in Meca, orphaned young, raised by uncle
who was head of clan
* Kadjja- wealthy widow, Muhammad’s wife
* Qu’ran (114 books or Suras- longest to shortest)- wrote down what angels said
(recitation- “received words of God”)- spell out strict form of monotheism (Allah)
* Hadith- additional material on Muhammad’s religion
* 5 central practices (pillars of Islam)
1) Zakat- charity tax (10% ones income)
2) Ramadan- month long fast, no eat/drink during daylight
3) Hajj- journey to Meca to pray at Kabba stone
4) Salat- prayer 7 times a day
5) Shanadah- there is no god but God and Muhammad is his prophet
* Commonalities with Judaism and Christianity
1) banned eating of pork and practiced circumcision
2) accept Hebrew prophets and in fact recognized Jesus as one of these prophets
(people of the book)
3) recognize Jerusalem as holy city (in Arabic, known as al-Quids)
* hijra/hegira (622)- flight to Medina- sled from Meca- year one in Islamic calendar
* Jews and Christians were on right track at first then got confused (from Muhammad’s
pov)- appeared that Christians worshiped 3 (trinity)
* Muhammad spread religion to family first but when he shared outside, he was pushed
back
- presenting monotheism in a mostly polytheistic world
- much like early Christians were pushed back
* Muhammad is first person to write arab
* Before death in 632- took over Meca (died without naming next ruler)
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