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Lecture 1

HIST 2055 Lecture 1: HIST 2055 Test 2 Book Notes


Department
History
Course Code
HIST 2055
Professor
A.Burstein
Lecture
1

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HIST 55 Book Notes: Test
Pg. 192-203
The American Revolution shook the European monarchy for decades, inspiring upheavals such as
Eglad’s Puita Reolutio ad the Feh Reolutio, leaig politial haos ad ilita ule
Representative Republican governments absorbed the energy of the entire generation Washington
condemned the radical republicanism of the French Revolution, and Jefferson and his Republican
followers claimed the Fourth of July as their holiday
People of high status worried that new state governments were too attentive in the demands of such
ordinary workers
The Political Crisis of the 79’s
The Federalists Implement the Constitution
The Constitution expanded the dimensions of political life by allowing voters to choose national leaders
as well as local and state officials; Federalists won 44 seats in the House of Representatives and only 8
Anti-Federalists won in the election; George Washington became president and John Adams became
Vice President
Devising the New Government
Washington asked Congress to reestablish the existing executive departments: Foreign Affairs, Finance,
and War
The Constitution demanded a Supreme Court, but the Philadelphia Convention suggested a National
Court System
Judiciary Act of 1789 established a federal court in each state and three circuit courts to hear appeals
from the districts, and a national court with the Supreme Court having a final say; also specified that
cases arising in state courts that involved federal laws could be appealed to the Supreme Court,
ensuring that the Supreme Court has a final say on the interpretation of the Constitution
The Bill of Rights
Federalists added a declaration of rights to the Constitution; James Madison submitted 19
Amendments, and 10 were approved by Congress and ratified by the states
The 10 Amendments the Bill of Rights safeguard personal rights including freedom of speech and
religion and mandate legal procedures, as well as eased the Federalist fears of becoming an oppressive
national government
They addressed the issue of federalism: the proper balance between the authority of the national and
state governments
Hailto’s Fiacial Progra
Alexander Hamilton called for an authoritarian government and a president with near-monarchial
powers at the Philadelphia convention, and was chosen by Washington as secretary of treasury
Hamilton devised bold policies to enhance national authority and assist financiers and merchants
He outlined his plans on three path-breaking reports to Congress: public self-credit, national bank, and
manufacturers; the reports outlined a plan for national mercantilism government-assisted economic
development
Public Credit: Redemption and Assumption
Hailto’s Repot o Puli Cedit as istatl otoesial, as he asked Congress to redeem at
face value the $55 million in Confederation securities held by foreign investors
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His reasons: America was an underdeveloped country that needed good credit to secure loans from
Dutch and British financiers; however, his plans would give profits to speculators who bought
depreciated securities, offending many Americans
Euall otoesial as Hailto’s poposal to pa the Buells ad othe ote holdes ith e
interest bearing securities, thereby creating a permanent national debt
Patrick Henry condemned his plan, and James Madison demanded that Congress recompense
those who originally owned Confederation securities but because of the complications and the
personal benefit of many House Members, they rejected his suggestion
Hamilton then proposed that the national government further enhance public credit by assuming
the war debts of the states; to get votes in the election, he agreed that the permanent national
capitol would be built along the Potomac River where southerners could easily watch its operations
Creating a National Bank
In December, Hamilton asked Congress to charter the Bank of the United States, which would be
jointly owned by private stock-holders and the national government
Hamilton argued that the bank would provide stability to the starved American economy by making
loans to merchants, handling government funds, and issuing bills of credit much as the Bank of
Eglad had doe i Geat Bitai, pesuadig Cogess to gat Hailto’s ak a -year charter
and send the legislation to the president for his approval
“eeta of “tate, Thoas Jeffeso, joied ith Jaes Madiso ad opposed Hailto’s fiaial
initiatives claiming a national bank was unconstitutional
Jeffeso’s aguet ested o a strict interpretation of the Constitution, whereas Hamilton
preferred a loose interpretation
Raising Revenue Through Tariffs
Hamilton sought revenue to pay the annual interest on the national debt; Congress imposed excise
taxes (including duty on Whiskey distilled in the United States) yielding $1 million a year
To raise another $4-5 million, the treasury secretary proposed higher tariffs on foreign imports
Hailto’s epot o Maufatuig uged epasio of Aeia aufatuig, although he did
not support high protective tariffs on foreign imports; he advocated moderate revenue tariffs that
would pay the interest on the debt and other government expenses
Hailto’s pla as suessful – as American trade increased customs revenue rose steadily and
paid down national debt
The treasury secretary devised a strikingly modern and successful fiscal system
Jeffeso’s Agaia “ste
Hamilton paid a high political price for his success as Washington began his second four-year term,
Hailto’s fiaial measures split the Federalists into bitterly opposed factions
Where most Northern Federalists supported the treasury secretary, most southern Federalists joined
Jefferson and Madison; Hamiltonians Federalists, allies of Madison and Jefferson called Democratic
Republicans
Jefferson spoke for Southern farmers and planters, embraced the optimism of the Enlightenment,
believed in the improvability of the human race, and deplored the corruption and social divisions that
threatened its progress
Jeffeso’s notion of an international division of labor resembled that proposed by Scottish economist
Adam Smith
The French Revolution and four years later the First French Republic went to war against a British-led
coalition of monarchies; desperation for Americas supplies brought prosperity to American agriculture
The French Revolution Divides America
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American merchants profited even more from the European War Washington issued a Proclamation
of Neutrality, allowing US citizens to trade with all belligerents
Aeia ehat ships laied a ight to pass though Bitai’s aal lokade of Feh pots ad
American firms quickly took over the sugar trade between France and the West Indies
Commercial earnings rose spectacularly, averaging $20 million annually twice the value of cotton and
tobacco exports
As the American merchant fleet increased, northern ship builders and merchants provided work for
thousands of shipwrights, sail makers, dockhands, and seamen
Ideological Politics
As most Americans welcomed the French Revolution because it abolished feudalism and
established a constitutional monarchy, the creation of the First French Republic was more
controversial
Americans condemned new French for closing Christian churches and promoting a radical religion
based on modern neutrality (Jacobin)
Ma Aeias feaed soial eolutio, ad Hailto’s eooi poliies uikl spaked a
domestic insurgency
Pennsylvania farmers mounted the so-alled Whiske Reellio to potest Hailto’s eise ta o
spirits; Washington raised a militia force and dispersed the Whiskey rebels
Ja’s Teat
Bitai’s aitie stateg itesified politial diisios i Aeia the British navy seized 250
American ships carrying French sugar and other goods
Washington dispatched John Jay to Britain, Jay returned with a controversial treaty that ignored
the Aeia lai that fee ships ake fee goods ad suppoted Bitai’s ight to stop eutal
ships it also required the government to make full and complete compensation to British
merchants for pre-Revolutionary War debts owed by American citizens
The agreement allowed Americans to submit claims for illegal seizures and required the British to
remove their troops and Indian agents from the Northwest Territory; the Senate ratified it and it
was determined that as long as the Federalists were in power, the United States would have a pro-
British foreign policy
The Haitian Revolution
The wealthy plantation colony of Saint-Dominigue in the West Indies was deeply divided: a small
lass of elite plates stood atop the populatio of , fee hites ad doiated the islad’s
half million slaves; men of color were excluded from most professions, forbidden from taking the
name of their white relative, and prevented from dressing and carrying themselves like whites
The French Revolution intensified the conflict between planters and free blacks, giving way to
massive slave uprising that aimed to abolish slavery
The uprising touched off of years of civil war, along with Spanish and British invasions black
Haitias led  Toussait L’Ouetue seized otol of the out ad afte fie oe ears of
fighting Saint Dominigue became the independent nation of Haiti: the first republic of the Atlantic
World
Planters, slaves, and free blacks alike fled the island and traveled to Charleston, Norfolk, Baltimore,
Philadelphia, and New York while newspapers detailed the horrors of the unfolding war
Slaveholders panicked, fearful that the contagion of black liberation would undermine their own
slave regimes
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