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Lecture 2

HIST 2061 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Dysentery, Smallpox, Atlantic Slave Trade

Course Code
HIST 2061

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The Middle Passage
I. Take Away
A. Slavery creates racism
B. Racism DOES NOT create slavery
C. The culture of the Atlantic slavery was shaped by the material circumstances
(economics) of the discovery of the Americas
II. Definition
A. Triangle trade and forced migration
1. Coined by English slavers for the middle stretch from Africa to England,
England to Americas and back to England. Africans were the main export
B. Describes the largest forced migration in human history
III. European Commerce
A. Military and economic competition
1. Result of competition between European states
2. (North Africa & East Asia)
3. Portuguese (1487)
a) Cape of Good Hope
b) Were searching for alternative trade routes to East Asia
4. Columbus (1492)
a) Was looking for similar routes as the Portuguese
b) Native American slavery
(1) Disease and escape
c) Demand and Atlantic slavery
d) Columbus accidental landing will set off wave of invasions in
North America and the Caribbean
e) The death of the Native American forced laborers created demand
that led directly to the Atlantic slave trade
IV. African Slave Trade
A. Race
1. Berbers and Europeans
B. Trans-Saharan Slave Trade
1. Mostly women and children
a) Concubines
b) Domestics
2. Soldiers (Morocco and Egypt)
3. Casualties , freedom, assimilation
4. Slaves are the byproduct of the Gold trade
C. Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade
1. Portuguese and the Oba (King) of Benin (1492)
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a) Had to get permission from the King to trade slaves
(1) Europeans did not control the slave trade
b) Control of the trade, war captives, and racial identity
c) Labor surplus and domestic slavery
d) American colonization
(1) Mexico
(2) Peru
(3) Brazil
V. Redefining Slavery
A. Chattel slavery & racism
1. Sugar fields in Caribbean and Brazil
2. Out of the 11.3 million African slaves sold, 6.5 million ended up in Spain
& Brazil
B. British North America
1. 17th century
2. Crops
a) Tobacco
b) Rice
c) Indigo
(1) These crops led to the demand of slaves in North America
C. Demographics --- Sub Saharan Africans
1. Black males
D. Portuguese and Spanish
1. Monopolies
a) Asiento (2,000/yr)
VI. Competition in Atlantic Slave Trade
A. 1550
1. New Comers
a) Dutch
b) French
c) English
2. England controlled
a) Barabados
b) Jamaica
3. French controlled
a) St. Domingue (Haiti)
b) Guadeloupe
c) Martinique
B. 1674
1. English cash crop
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