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Lecture 33

KIN 2500 Lecture Notes - Lecture 33: Tachycardia, Asthma, Aldosterone

Kinesiology: Professional Courses/Basic Activity Courses
Course Code
KIN 2500

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Chapter 22: The Endocrine System
Endocrine vs. Exocrine glands:
Exocrine glands
Secrete things that end up on the surface of our body
Secrete things that stay in the body
Hormones secreted into our blood system
The study of hormones in our body
Endocrine system
Can be fast or slow (instantaneous or a long period of time)
Target cells
Hormones affect only certain target cells
Certain hormones only bind to certain receptors
Hormones influence their target cells by chemically binding to
specific protein receptors
Pituitary Gland:
The master gland of the pituitary gland
Located inferior to the thalamus
Major integrating link between our nervous system and our
endocrine system
Infundibulum pituitary gland
is a pea shaped structure lies in a fossa on the sphenoid bone
and attaches to the hypothalamus by a stalk called infundibulum
Anterior pituitary
hGH- human growth hormone promotes growth; baseball (like
TSH- stimulates the synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones
FSH- in females initiates secretion of estrogen and in males
stimulates testes to produce sperm
PRL- Prolactin; initiates milk in the mammary glands
ACTH- adrenocorticotropic ; secretes glucocorticosol
Fight or Flight
Anterior pituitary kicks in
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In turn the hypothalamus controls the ANS which regulates body temp,
thirst, hunger, sexual behavior, and defensive reactions such as fear and
Clinical Connections:
Pituitary dwarfism
Hypo-secretion of HGH
Usually happens at birth
Hyper-secretion of HGH
Usually happens at birth
When you get a hyper-secretion of HGH as an adult
Enlarged jaw, nose, tongue; very distorted look for adults
Posterior Pituitary:
OT oxytocin
Relaxes the uterus
Then the oxytocin signals the breasts and starts to release the
mammary glands to make milk
ADH antidiuretic hormone-
decreases urine volume, water loss through sweating, raises
blood pressure by constricting arterioles
During and after delivery of a baby oxytocin targets tissues in mother’s
uterus and breasts
Stretching of uterus during labor releases oxytocin
Pineal Gland:
Melatonin contributes to the setting of body’s biological clock
During sleep levels, melatonin increases tenfold and then decline to a
low level before awakening
Regulation of this is difficult
Ex: crossing multiple time zones
Clinical Connection
SAD- a type of depression that afflicts some people during the
winter months
Thyroid Gland:
Two lateral lobes connected by isthmus
T3 and T4
Thyroid gland produces these
Clinical Connections
Congenital hypothyroidism-
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