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POLI 4059 Politics Of The Middle East Authoritarian Republics And Monarchies

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Political Science
POLI 4059
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Authoritarian Republics Authoritarian Republics in the Middle East non democratic Egypt 19522011 2013 presentTunisia 19562011oFairly new Syria 1958 present Iraq 19582003Algeria 1962presentNorth Yemen South Yemen Yemen 1962presentLibya 19692011 oNot pluralistic yetIran 1979presentPalestinian Authority 1994present Egypt and Yemen have been semi democratic at times None of these countries undertook political liberalization like the monarchies oAs a result they are unpopular and inflexible More affected by the Arab Spring than the pluralistic or monarchy oIn Tunisia Egypt Libya Yemen and Syria Only republics not affected were Algeria Iraq and the Palestinian Authority oDealt with civil wars insteadoMore reluctance to protestPalestinian Authority Governmental body established in 1994 that administers parts of Palestinian territories Including the Gaza Strip and eastern Jerusalemo1967 Israel seized areas and occupied them Has some sovereignty right to govern own affairs without external influence over governmentDo not have sovereignty within regions Israel occupies Authoritarian republic for the most partSovereignty based on the consent of the people Revolutionary Origins of ME Authoritarian Republics Revolutionary movement movements that sought to transform society according to some sort of agenda or blueprint based on a transformative ideology Egypt Syria Iraq Libya Radical Arab nationalists seized power to implement Arab nationalist agendas Algeria Tunisia anti colonial Arab nationalist movements seized power to gain independence and implement radical Algeria or moderate Tunisia Arab nationalist agendasNorth Yemen South Yemen Yemen Radical Arab nationalists North Yemen or Marxist Leninist Arab nationalist South Yemen seized power to implement Arab nationalist and or Marxist Leninist agendas and later united Yemen Palestinian Authority Radical Arab nationalist PLO Palestine Liberation Organization led by Yasser Arafat became moderate in the 80s signed 1994 agreement with Israel to administer occupied territories temporarily and establish independent Palestinian state in 1999 did not happen Iran Radical Shia Islamists seized power to implement a Shia Islamist agenda Distinctive in ways that make them different from monarchies and from most other republics They most resemble the early totalitarian regimes of SU Communist China or Hitler Important becauseoIdeologies shaped political institutions oOrigins create two step process in which regimes initially work to carry out transformative agenda but later become more complacent in revolutionary ideology because overall priority to keep themselves in powerTransformative ideologiesPolitical institutions shaped Pressures and challenges facedSubsequent evolution that leads to Arab SpringTransformative IdeologiesTransformative ideologiesRadical Arab Nationalism oNationalism ethnic identification desire for self rule political identity Originated in France in 19th century considered a nation state for French people oArab nationalism emerged in early 20th century becauseDesire for independence from Ottoman Empire Growing European domination in the Middle East Through colonization politically and economically After WWI Britain tried to colonize Egypt Britain and France create quasi coloniesJordan Iraq Syria Lebanon Israel occupied territories mandates Zionist immigration into Palestine Before WWI a small group of European Jews were moving to Palestine but it was still a part of the Ottoman Empire Only 35 of Jews in place there Zionism Jewish nationalism where they wished to establish a Jewish state in Jerusalem100 AD almost all Jews were exiled from Europe by the Romans Jewish DiasporaLeague of Nations allowed Zionist immigration in Palestine after WWIBetween 19001393 population grows from 5 to 30 Resistant Arab population War erupted between Arabs and Zionists in 1936 Arabs in other areas sympathetic with the Jews there and blamed the British for the Jewish influx into Palestine
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