Neofunctionalism - Sept. 9.pdf
Neofunctionalism - Sept. 9.pdf

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Louisiana State University
Political Science
POLI 4074
Leonard Ray

Neofunctionalism Sept 9Tuesday September 9 2014907 AMEuropean integrationRefers to efforts to unify Western EuropeBiggest ones ECSC coalsteel EEC economic community EURTOM EC EUProblem France trying to build nuclear bomb postwar British never needed nuclear weapons because of their relationship with the UShow do they address this issue of one country wanting nuclear suppliesTheories of integrationPolitical theoriesFederalismFunctionalismMain Academic theories pre1992Neofunctionalism HaasIntergovernmentalism MoravscikTransactionalism DeutschQuick timeline of integrationEuro CoalSteel Community established in 1952Euro Defense CommunityEuro Political Community more integrated than ECSC failed in 1954Euro Economic Community in 1958 wanted a common marketfree trade areacustoms union movement towards free trade across Europe1962 direct elections for European parliament coming up but Charles De Gaulle blocks increased powers Luxembourg compromise1970s more monetary cooperation world goes off of the gold standardUSA currency backed by goldOther countries currency backed by US currency so USD was good as goldChina buying treasury bonds to lend US money building up huge pile of USD to keep their currency low and keep unemploymentexport prices lowDevaluation when the relative values of two currencies change one goes down and one goes up1972 America closed the gold window no more trading USD for goldProblematic so many different currencies in Europe and you need to figure out what to doSingle European Act 1980sEveryones talking about different treaties so they rolled it all into oneBig step in power of political institutions for EuropeEuropean Union postCold WarOverallupward trend in integration in EuropeBut the process was very uneven for example failure of the EDC and EPCThe 1960s were a period of Europessimism because the idea seemed deadAcademic Theories of IntegrationBegan in 1950sWanted to explain the apparent trend towards integrationImportant scholars Karl Deutsch and Ernst HaasDeutsch examined historical episodes of integrationdisintegration emphasized connections across units transactions especially with elitesHaas specifically studies the ECSC in depth emphasized the logic of functional spillover to new areas on cooperationDeutsch and integration theoryStudied episodes of integration and disintegrationWanted to identify common patternsIntegration casesThe USAEnglish and Scottish Union 1707German unityItalian unityHapsbourg EmpireSwitzerland 1848DisintegrationBreakup of union of Britain and IrelandDisunion of Norway and SwedenDeutsch comes up with an entirely new vocabulary to describe his ideas about political communitiesSecurity communitya group which has become integratedIntegrationthe attainment within a territory of a sense of community and expectations of peaceful changeAmalgamated security communitycreation of a single overarching political unitPluralistic security communitypreservation of existing political units without common central political unitAmalgamatedPluralisticSecurity Community USANATOIntegratedUS and CanadaNot Security Community Not Hapsbourg USA and Russia IntegratedEmpiretodayDeutsch makes some significant observations what does it take to make these workImportance of sense of communitywe feeling of shared destiny especially among political elites the people get their ideas from the elitesElite mobility across unitscareerism etcTangible gains can buy loyaltyCommunication and circulationamong units youre not shocked when another unit does somethingIntegration isnt irreversible and its not automaticDanger signsExcessive demands on political system people ask it to make more decisions than it can handleMilitary conflict have to gather resourcespeopleLinguisticethnic fragmentation different ethnic groups with strong identitiessense of community is difficult to acheiveClosed political eliteHow do we get data on thisPublic opinion polls or surveys ask hypothetical questions ask about trustworthiness of other groups ask how people think of themselves ask if a certain group should or should not be a memberIn last 50 years no significant increase in the sense of community in European UnionNeofunctionalismTracks the trajectory of the EU itselfFlourished in the 1950s struggled in the 1960sDeclared dead in 1970s reappears in 1980sBegan as an attempt to explain integration in generalImportant conceptsSpillover the spread of integrationFunctional spillover through the creation of new needs because of prior integration links across policy areasEg free trade areaother countries outside EU want to export to the countries that have the cheapest external tariffpressure to create common external tariff so one country isnt getting all the exportsPolitical spillover when cooperation in one area inspires cooperation in other areasIf it worked in this area lets try it in a different one tooCultivated spillover deliberate manipulation of the political process to further integrationElite socializationinterestsPresumption political elites are the crucial actorsSocialization through exposure and cooperation helps elites to trust each other across national bordersTransformation of loyalties of individualsLegacy of neofunctionalismDeclared obsolete in 1970sHaas says that its too turbulent politicians are always reacting to new things happeningSingle European ActLooks like a relaunch of the community looked like early days of the communityDriven by potential functional benefitsConstructivism in international relations and socialization as a variableSupranational institutions ECJ European Court of Justice hard to explain otherwise
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