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Lecture 6

PSYC 2000 Lecture 6: Chapter 6

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PSYC 2000
Katherine Moen

PSYCH 2000: MOEN 1 Chapter 6: Memory  Memory does not work like a video camera  What is memory? o An active system  Receives information  Organizes and alters that information  Retrieves the information o There are multiple types of memory, it is not one thing in one place in the brain.  Basic Elements of Memory o Encoding (putting it in)  Converting sensory information into a form that is usable in the brain’s storage systems o Storage (keeping it in)  Holding onto information for some period of time o Retrieval (getting it out)  Using information in storage  Anytime something is retrieved, it like it is encoded all over again  The retrieval process is where it most likely where it is altered before it is recoded  Memory Stores o Sensory memory o Short term memory (working memory o Long term memory  Information processing model o  Sensory memory o Holds information from the senses for a very brief duration o Each sense has a sensory memory associated with it o Visual = iconic memory (about 1 sec.) o Auditory = echoic memory (about 4 sec.) 2  Iconic Memory o Visual sensory memory o Capacity: Everything you can see at one time o Duration: Information is pushed out as soon as you look at something new o Eidetic Imagery (Photographic Memory)  The ability to retain more information in Iconic Memory  Echoic Sensory Memory (tuning instruments) o Memory for what you just heard o Limited to what can be heard at any one moment o Capacity: smaller than Iconic memory o Duration: longer than Iconic memory  2 – 4 seconds  Sperling’s Iconic Memory Experiment o People couldn’t remember all of the letters in the display o Later he cued only one row and people could remember the entire row o Capacity is essentially unlimited, but sensory memory fades very quickly!  Short-term Memory (STM) o The magic number 7 (2) o Active part of memory o Lasts up to 30 seconds  Dialing a phone number o Relies on Selective Attention o Chunking  Organizing information (acronyms)  17761492181211941  1776 1492 1812 1941 o Rehearsal  Repeating information over and over o Interference  Interruption that impair memory  STM: Serial Position Effect o The order of information can play a role in how well you remember o Perhaps because items at the beginning and the end of the list stand out more o Perhaps because of rehearsal  Rehearsed the beginning more and the end is fresh o People tend to remember best the beginning and the end; the middle the worst  Working Memory o More modern view of STM o Alan Baddeley o STM: Maintain o WM: Maintain and Manipulate  WM: Phonological Loop o Language PSYCH 2000: MOEN 3 o Articulatory Control Process  Your “internal voice” o Phonological Store  Holds onto some info for 1-2 seconds while you’re processing other info  Example: conversation  WM: Visuo-Spatial Sketch Pad o Stores visual information  Where you put your pencil o Separate capacity from Phonological Loop o You are able to do two task, counting task and ball game, at the same time because it is separate  WM: Episodic Buffer o “Backup Storage” o Communicates between LTM and WM  WM: Central Executive o Decides what WM pays attention to  Selective Attention  Driving a car and talking o Combining information  Reading and Imagery  When you read and get a vivid image  Disclaimer! o This isn’t the only model of WM o Not everyone agrees it’s correct o It is the first and most popular of WM  Long-term Memory o Relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system o Elaborative Rehearsal  Transferring information from STM into LTM by making that information meaningful in some way o o Non-Declarative Memory 4  Procedural memories  Implicit  Habits, skills  Non-conscious, their existence is implied because they affect conscious behavior  EX: riding a bike, hitting golf ball when you are a pro o Declarative Memory  Explicit  Information that is conscious and known  Memory for facts  Semantic  General knowledge  Episodic  Personal information  Daily activities and events o Autobiographical memories  EX: What you ate last night? Episodic autobiographical memory  If you can pinpoint a date, it is episodic.  Highly Superior Autobiographical Memory (HSAM)  Video: Actress with superior memory  The Brain and LTM o Larger hippocampus o Consolidation  Long-term Potentiation  Physical changes in the number and sensitivity of synapses  Brain changes when you study that information over and over  Patient H.M  Had his hippocampus removed due to severe epilepsy  He developed severe amnesia o Anterograde amnesia – could not form any new memories  He could learn new procedural skills, but couldn’t remember learning them o Drawing  Hippocampus is responsible for declarative memories not procedural/non-declarative memories  How do we get information out of memory? o Retrieval: Recall  The person must retrieve information learned earlier  Information to be retrieved must be “pulled” from memory with very few external cues  Fill-in-the-Blank test or trying to remember someone’s name at a party  Retrieval failure  Recall has failed (at least temporarily)  Tip of the Tongue (TOT) Phenomenon o I know what it is, the answer is on the bottom right of the page PSYCH 2000: MOEN 5  Serial position  Primary Effect  Beginning  Regency Effect  End o Retrieval: Recognition  The person only needs to identify previously learned items  Multipl
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