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Lecture 1

PSYC 2000 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: B. F. Skinner, Psychodynamic Psychotherapy, Gestalt Psychology

Course Code
PSYC 2000

of 7
I. Psychology & Its History
a. Psychology: scientific study of behavior and mental processes
a.i. Behavior: any action
a.ii. Mental process: perceptions, thoughts, feelings
a.i.1. Latent constructs
a.i.1.a. Can't observe but you can ask
a.ii. Scientific
b. Wilhelm Wundt
a.i. "Father of psychology"
a.i.1. FIRST attempt to bring objectivity/measurement in psychology
a.i.2. Founded 1st documented psychology lab
a.i.3. Some work involved objective introspection
a.i.1.a. Idea that in order to understand mental processes we can
internally think about how the process fells and works
a.i.1.b. Perception of something
b. Edward Titchener
a.i. Student of Wundt
a.ii. Translated Wundt's work into English
a.iii. Structuralism
a.i.1. Study consciousness by trying to understand its smallest most
basic elements
a.ii. Introspection of thoughts
b. William James
a.i. Breaks down consciousness
a.ii. Functionalism
a.i.1. Study the function of consciousness
a.i.1.a. How the mind allows people to work, play, and adapt to
new circumstances
b. Max Wertheimer
a.i. Gestalt Psychology
a.i.1. How we experience the world
a.i.1.a. "Whole is greater than the sum of its parts"
b. Sigmund Freud
a.i. Worked with patients whose complaints had no identifiable physical
a.ii. Focused on the role of the UNCONSCIOUS
a.i.1. Where unwanted urges and desires are pushed towards
a.i.2. Dream interpretation: highway to your unconscious
a.i.1.a. Psychoanalysis
a.i.1.b. Psychosexual stages
a.i.1.c. Child development
a.i.2. Phobias are the result of unconscious conflicts
b. Pavlov
a.i. Russian physiologist
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a.ii. Interested in reflexes
a.i.1. Studied dogs
a.i.2. Discovered that reflexes could be learned
a.i.1.a. Food - saliva (natural response)
a.i.1.b. After pairing: buzzer- food, get buzzer - saliva
b. John Watson
a.i. Behaviorism
a.i.1. Study of observable behavior
a.i.1.a. Behaviors are measurable
a.ii. Little Albert Study
a.i.1. Watson tried to create a phobia using the conditioning technique
discovered by Pavlov
a.i.1.a. Classical conditioning
a.i.1.a.i. Fear conditioning - fears are learned
a.ii. Left his job after a scandal turned to advertising
b. BF Skinner
a.i. Expanded and continued the work of Watson
I. Modern Perspectives
a. Psychodynamic
a.i. Modern version of psychoanalysis
a.ii. Focused on the development of a sense of self and the discovery of other
motivations behind a person's behavior
a.iii. Psychodynamic psychotherapy
a.iv. Attachment theory: type of bond formed between caregiver and an infant
b. Behavioral
a.i. Manipulated voluntary behavior by changing sequences of the stimulus
a.ii. BF Skinner
a. Humanistic
i. Carl Rodgers & Abraham Maslow
ii. Emphasis consciousness and immediate experiences and the individual to
become the best he/she can be (self-actualize )
iii. Humanists held the view that people have free will (the freedom to
choose/shape their own destiny)
iv. Client-centered therapy
a. Cognitive
i. Grew in part out of gestalt psychology
ii. How people: think, remember, and store information
i.1. Language
i.2. Problem solving
i.3. Intelligence
i.4. Decision making
ii. Cognitive neuroscience: brain and cognitive processing
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b. Sociocultural
i. Combines social and cultural psychology
ii. Social psychology : study of group, relationships, and social influences on
iii. Cultural psychology: study of cultural values and norms, or standards of
iv. Cross cultural studies
b. Biopsychological Perspective
i. Mental processes can be explained by the interaction with biological
factors like genes or hormones
b. Evolutionary Perspective
i. Grew in part out of functionalism
ii. Argues that human behavior is a result of psychological adaptions that
help people successfully function and survive
I. Psychological Professionals
a. Psychologists
a.i. Doctoral degree
a.ii. Specialized training in one or more subfield of psychology
a.i.1. Clinical
a.i.2. Counseling
a.i.3. Developmental
a.i.4. Cognitive
a.i.5. Social
a.i.6. Biological
a.i.7. Personality
a.ii. Some do basic research, others do applied research, some do both
a.i.1. Basic research : clinical study on how patients experience emotion
with Alzheimer's
a.i.2. Applied research: how can we change the emotional response of
some Alzheimer's patients to improve their quality of life
a.ii. Therapy
a.i.1. Some psychologists ( school, counseling, clinical) are trained in
psychological interventions/therapy
a.i.2. Some other professions also do psychotherapy, sometimes form
specific perspectives
a.i.1.a. Social workers
a.i.1.b. Marriage
a.i.1.c. Family
a.i.2. Some of these professions require a master's degree (vs. doctoral)
a.i.3. With a few exceptions psychologists are not allowed to prescribe
medication ( pharmacotherapy)
b. Psychiatrists
a.i. Medical specialty
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