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Lecture 2

PSYC 2000 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Peripheral Nervous System, Spinal Cord, Autonomic Nervous System

Course Code
PSYC 2000

of 4
I. Central Nervous System
a. Brain
b. Spinal cord
a.i. Pathway that connects the brain
a.ii. Reflexes Connections
a.i.1. Afferent/sensory
a.i.1.a. Senses to spinal cord
a.i.2. Interneurons
a.i.1.a. Afferent to efferent
a.i.2. Efferent/motor
a.i.1.a. Spinal cord to muscles
I. Peripheral Nervous System
a. Peripheral nerves
b. Autonomic nervous system
a.i. Controls the involuntary
a.i.1. Muscles
a.i.2. Organs
a.i.3. Glands
a.ii. Automatic functions
a.iii. Sympathetic
a.i.1. Arouses
a.i.2. Fight or flight
a.ii. Parasympathetic
a.i.1. Calms
a.i.2. Rest and digest
II. Nervous System
a. Gray matter
a.i. Neurons (mostly gray matter)
a.i.1. Receives and sends messages
a.i.2. Composed of
a.i.1.a. Cell body (soma)
a.i.1.a.i. Contains nucleus
a.i.1.b. Dendrites
a.i.1.a.i. Receives messages from other cells
a.i.1.b. Axon
a.i.1.a.i. Passes messages away from the cell body
a.i.1.a.ii. Hillock :where the soma meets the axon
where the axon potential begins
a.i.1.b. Myelin sheath
a.i.1.a.i. Covers the axon and helps speed neural impulses
a.i.1.b. Terminal buttons
a.i.1.a.i. Form junctions
a.i.1.b. Action potential
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a.i.1.a.i. Electrical signal traveling down the axon
a.i.1.a.ii. All or nothing
a.i.1.a.iii. How can neuron encode different information for low
or high sounds, etc…?
Myelination: fast or slow neurons
Oligodendrocytes ---> CNS
Schwann cells ---> PNS
a.i.2. Synapse
a.i.1.a. Tiny gap between the axon tip of the neuron and the dendrite
or cell body of the receiving neuron
a.i.1.b. Chemical
a.i.2. Neurotransmitters
a.i.1.a. Released from the sending neuron, travel across the synapse
and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron thereby influencing it
a.i.1.b. Cleaning up Synapse
a.i.1.a.i. Reabsorbed into the neurons through reuptake
a.i.1.a.ii. Diffuse
a.i.1.a.iii. Broken down by enzymes
a.i.1.a.iv. The process applies brakes on neurotransmitter action
a.i.1.b. Effects
a.i.1.a.i. Excitatory
a.i.1.a.ii. Inhibitory
a.i.1.b. Types
a.i.1.a.i. Glutamate
a.i.1.a.ii. GABA
a.i.1.a.iii. Serotonin
a.i.1.a.iv. Acetylcholine
Muscle movement
Plays a role in learning and memory
a.i.1.a.v. Dopamine
Sensations of pleasure Neuropeptides
a.i.1. Drugs
a.i.1.a. Agonists
a.i.1.a.i. Increases original message that neurotransmitters was
supposed to send
a.i.1.a.ii. Decreases in inhibitory
a.i.1.b. Antagonists
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a.i.1.a.i. Blocks original message that neurotransmitter was
supposed to send
a.i.1.a.ii. Increases in inhibitory
a.i.1.b. Some drugs act by affecting the amount of neurotransmitters
available at the synapse
a. White matter
i. Glia
Endocrine System Nervous system
Similarity: produce molecules that
act elsewhere in the body
Similarity: produce molecules
that act elsewhere in the body
Uses hormones Uses neurotransmitters
Takes longer to act via the
Electrical current take fractions
of a second
Effects last longer Effects are more transient
i.1. Makes up 90% of the cell
i.2. Supportive role
i.1.a. Provide nutrients
i.1.b. Repair damage
i.1.c. Form myelin
i.1.d. Gets rid of waste
b. Somatic nervous system
i. Sensation
ii. Voluntary muscle movement
b. Endocrine system
i. Slow chemical communication system
ii. Communication carried out by hormones
iv. Basic functions
i.1. Pituitary
i.1.a. Master gland
i.1.b. Responsible for growth and control of other glands
i.2. Thyroid gland
i.1.a. Metabolism
i.2. Parathyroid gland
i.1.a. Calcium regulation
i.2. Adrenal glands
i.1.a. Triggers fight or flight
i.1.b. Engaged under stress or danger
i.2. Pancreas
i.1.a. Regulates blood sugar
i.2. Testes and ovaries
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