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Lecture 3

PSYC 2000 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Prefrontal Cortex, Phineas Gage, Sensory System

Course Code
PSYC 2000

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Cortex-various lobes & regions
oBrain Stem and Cerebellum
Medulla (Heartbeat, Breathing, swallowing)
Pons (Messages between the cerebellum ad cortex; sleep,
Reticular Formation (arousal , attention , alertness
Midbrain- segment of brainstem that lies between the hindbrain and the
forebrain. Integrates sensory processes such as vision and hearing
oDopamine synthesis is also involved
Cerebellum- controls and coordinates all involuntary, rapid, fine motor
movement as well as voluntary movements that happen in rapid succession
oCant fully extend arm out or touch nose properly (ex: of damage to
Limbic System
oH-omeostasis ( keeps things functioning in normal range [temp])
oO-lfaction (smell)
Hypothalamus is really involved with controlling the endocrine system
Thalamus- round structure in center of brain that works as the sensory switch
board , relaying incoming sensory info to appropriate areas except SMEL
Hypothalamus- lies below thalamus
oHelps direct many maintenance activities
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Thirst, hunger, body temp, sleeping & waking, sexual behavior)
oControls pituitary gland
oPlays vital role in learning and memory (for facts/knowledge)
Amygdala- 2 almond shaped neural clusters linked to/with emotion, esp. fear
Cortex-covering of brain consisting of densely packed neurons, responsible for
higher thought processes and interpretation of sensory output
oCorticalization- wrinkling of cortex
Allows larger area of cortical cells to exist in the small space
inside the skull
oFrontal Lobe: Phineas Gage
Rod pierced through school, damaged eye, exited out top of the
school, we can live without parts of the cortex but… changed his higher
order processes (personality)
Damage to prefrontal cortex
He had no filter or regard for what he said, he was acting on his
sudden impulses and desires
Responsible for higher (complex) mental processes &
decision making, Also contains the motor cortex
Parietal Lobe- contains somatosensory cortex, area of neurons running down the front of the
parietal lobes, responsible for processing info form skin and internal body receptors for touch,
temp, body position
Temporal Lobe- auditory
oPrimary auditory cortex, processes auditory info form the ears
oAuditory association cortex- interprets or makes sense of auditory info
oSome parts also responsible for aspects of language
Occipital Lobes
oPrimary visual cortex : processes visual info from eyes
oVisual association cortex: interprets or makes sense of visual info
Association Cortices
oAreas within different lobes that integrate different types of info
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Broca V Wernicke
Damage to the association cortex ( Prosopagnosia- cant recognize/see
Cerebral Hemispheres
oCerebral Hemispheres – 2 sections of the cortex on the left and right side of the brain
oCorpus Callosum- thick band of neurons that connects the right and left brain cerebral
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