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Child Psych. Ch. 3.docx

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PSYC 2076
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Chapter 3The Start of LifeGenetics and Prenatal DevelopmentIEarliest Developmentgametessex cells from mom and dad that form a new cell at conceptionspermdad ovummomzygotenew cell that has DNA info from mom and dad as a result of fertilizationAGenes Chromosomes and Sex Determination Genesbasic units of genetic information that are COMPOSED of DNA moleculesChromosomes rod shaped portions of DNADNA moleculesthese make up genesGenes are arranged into groups along 46 chromosomesin 23 pairsHuman cells contain 23 pairs of chromosomes for a total of 46 There are 22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes The sex chromosomes are the X chromosome and the Y chromosomeSex Chromosomes XYThe male gametes or sperm cells in humans and other mammals are heterogametic2 types of sex chromosomes XYThe female gametes or eggs however contain only the X sex chromosome and are homogamatic The sperm cell determines the sex of an individual in this case If a sperm cell containing an X chromosome fertilizes an egg the resulting zygote will be XX or female If the sperm cell contains a Y chromosome then the resulting zygote will be XY or maleBMultiple Births This is much more common in animals than in peopleLess than 3 of human pregnancies produce more than one childIt is very rare for a pregnancy to produce more than 2 children triplets quadruplets etc are usually the result of fertility treatmentsThese larger numbers can easily complicate a pregnancyTwins are siblings who are the result of a single pregnancy They can be either monozygotic or dizygotic monozygotic twins AKA identical or maternal twinsabout 30 of twins 1 zygote
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