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Child Psych. Ch. 2.docx

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Louisiana State University
PSYC 2076

Chapter 2Theoretical Perspectives and ResearchI Perspectives on ChildrenHere were going to take a look at some various approaches to child developmentThey all have different theoriesIn everyday life we often use the term theory to refer to any given beliefPsychology uses a more rigorous definitionA theorya framework for everything weve learned so farany phenomena IE We have decades worth of researchand a theory will help us to summarize it in on easy statementA psychological theory has two key components 1 it must describe a behavior and 2 make predictions about future behaviorsWe make those predictions in the form of a hypothesis these are TESTABLE predictions that we form from theoriesA Psychodynamic Perspective Freud behavior motivated by inner forcesconflictsmemories little awarenessbeing anal is a Freudian conceptUnconsciousthat part of the personality we dont have access towhat Freud believed controlled youThree Aspects of Personality 1 Idthe only part of our personality that were BORN withits unconsciousThe id is driven by the pleasure principleit wants what it wantsNOW Immediate gratification2 Ego actually deals with reality Tries to satisfy the id while still trying to deal with reality Will give the idwhat it wantsbut in a socially acceptable way Allows for delayed gratificationThe ego operates based on the reality principle satisfies id in realisticappropriate ways3 Superego this is the last to developmoral standards and idealsThe last component of personality to develop is the superego The superego is the aspect of personality that holds all of our internalized moral standards and ideals that we acquire from both parents and societyour sense of right and wrong The superego provides guidelines for making judgments According to Freud the superego begins to emerge at around age five There are two parts of the superegoaEgo Idealwhat we SHOULD do Pride if we live up to our super egobConsciencewhat we shouldnt doif you do something wrongyou feel guiltFreuds Psychosexual Stages of DevelopmentPsychoanalytic theory suggested that personality is mostly established by the age of five Early experiences play a large role in personality development and continue to influence behavior later in life
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