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SOCL 2001 Introductory Socl Sociology Notes 2

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SOCL 2001
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Chapter 1 Sociology As A ScienceIntroductionSociology is the scientific study of social lifeIt first started in the mid 1800sThe Industrial Revolution is one of the biggest jumpstarts of sociologyPeople were leaving farms and coming to cities to get new jobsInstead of being farmers they were now factory worker or craftsmenThey no longer worked at their homeBecause of this transformation to factory production cities exploded in size ex LondonIn the beginnings there were no regulations for factory workersThere was also high pollution in the citiesDuring the Middle Ages there was no such thing as unemploymentWith industrialization it was possible for people to be out of workIndustrialization caused dramatic changes in the way of lifeSociologiststheir theoriesAll sociologists are trying to discover governing laws of human behaviorAuguste Comte Frenchman who coined the term sociologie in 1884He wanted to take the scientific method and apply it to society to figure out how society worksCame up with the Structural function theoryStructuralFunctionalism Comte came up with this theory that looks at the way the different parts of society function to maintain the society as a whole ex organs Adam Smith 1776 He wrote the Wealth of NationsHe was an economistIn the Wealth of Nations he argued free market capitalist and termed it LaissezfaireSmith said that there should be no government regulationThe more demand went up the more people produce things therefore making the price go upFree market competition would mean whoever sold the best product at the best price would attract the most consumersThe Wealth of Nations can be taken as an argument against the textile system Great Britain had mercantile laws dating way backFrench and Indian War AKA 7 Years WarWhen the War was over the English decided that the colonists should pay taxesJohn Hancock signed his name big and twice on the Declaration of Independence because of taxesIn the Wealth of Nations Smith also talks about High Division of Labor which means that everybody in society has their own specialized taskIn terms of manufactured assemblies everyone has their own tasks on the lineSmith gave illustrations on how factories would be more efficient if each worker had a specific task to doThis High Division of Labor is a major theme that sociologists useKarl Marx 18181883Among other things he was a political writer and a political activistHe was born in Germany then moved to Paris and was forced to leave because of his writings and eventually landed in LondonMarx saw the rapid industrialization and saw the problems involved with itHe suggested a solutionIn an industrial society a persons standing is based on their means of productionEconomic Determinism One of Marxs ideas where a persons economic state determines a number of things such as your place in the community family structure religion etc Bourgeoisie the capitalists owners who sit back and collect their moneyProletariat these people must work for their moneyMarx said that eventually there will be a war between these two classes and the Proletariats would go on strike rise up and overthrow the BourgeoisieConflict Theory Marxs ideas formed the conflict theory which looks at social lifeIt examines the conflict over power and the conflict over control of resource Not all conflict theorists are Marxists however it is his line of theoryConflict theorists have and ideological agendaThey want to use sociology to change societyC Wright Mills He wrote a book called The Sociological Imagination where he set forth his ideasThe Sociological Imagination explains how you must understand that personal troubles are part bigger social problemsEX divorceIf he is unemployed and there are many people in the world who are unemployed we need to look at societyIt is no longer just personal troublesIn The Sociological Promise Mills said that we should use our sociological knowledge to try to fix these problemsHerbert Spencer He applied Darwins principal of evolution to sociologyHe came up with the term survival of the fittestTalcott Parsons He put American Sociology on the mapHe believed that everything in a society must have a function or it wouldnt be thereRobert K Merton He was a structural functionalistHe said that the natural sciences have been in existence for thousands of years and sociology is still in its infancy Therefore we cannot come up with laws to govern behavior and we must take a different approachMerton had something to say about the concept of functions He said we are going to find things that are functional and we are going to find things that are dysfunctional so we need to look for both EX automobile The function is that it gets you around The dysfunction is that it burns fossil fuels Some things in society can be functional and dysfunctional at the same timeTheories of the Middle Range We need to look at individual parts of society and come up with theories on how they functionThen we can use these theories as building blocksMerton said there are many types of functionsManifest functions Clearly understood and recognized by everybody
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