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Lecture 7

SOCL 2001 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Neocolonialism, Upper Class, Class Consciousness


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOCL 2001
Professor
nilepatterson
Lecture
7

Page:
of 5
I. Systems of social stratification
a. Social stratification
i. The division of large numbers of people into layers according to their relative
property, power, and prestige; applies to both nations and people within a
nation, society, or other group
ii. Affects life chances and the way we think about life
iii. Deal with material things and ideas we expect out of life
iv. Every society has this
v. Gender is a basis of this also
b. Systems
i. Slavery
1. Some individuals own other people
2. Most widespread in agricultural societies
3. Least common among nomads
4. Was not necessarily inheritable
5. Was not necessarily powerless and poor
6. New World
a. Bonded labor/indentured servitude
i. A contractual system in which someone sells his or her body
for a specified period of time in an arrangement very close
to slavery, except that it is entered voluntarily
b. Slavery
i. Tried to enslave Native Americans but that did not work
because the natives knew the land and could survive off very
little
ii. They then moved towards Africans which were sold by the
Dutch, English, Portuguese, and Spanish
iii. Slavery led to racism
Slave owners adopted an ideology that justified their
beliefs of the social arrangement
Slavery is inheritable
7. Today
a. Certain places in Africa slavery is still allowed
b. Slaery as’t ade illegal util  or  in some of these
places
8. Causes
a. Debt
i. Enslaved because they could not pay debts
b. Crime
i. Fugitive cold be enslaved by the victim of their crimes family
c. War
i. When one group conquers another their people are
enslaved
9. Conditions
a. In some places slavery was temporary
i. Israelites
Set free every 50 years
ii. Romans
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Had the right to buy themselves
ii. Caste
1. Birth determines lifelong status
2. Make certain boundaries between castes remain firm
a. Endogamy
i. Marriage within the same social caste
3. South Africa
a. Afrikaners
i. Europeans of Dutch descent
ii. Control the government, police, and military
iii. Apartheid
Government approved and enforced separation of
racial ethnic groups
4 groups
Europeans (whites)
Africans (blacks)
Coloureds (mixed races)
Asians
In 1990 Afrikaners began to dismantle the caste
system
Nelson Mandela integrated all racial ethnic groups
4. U.S racial caste system
a. Slavery was replaced by a racial caste system
b. All whites placed themselves at a higher status that all african
americans
V. India's religious caste
a. Existed for 3,000 years
b. Subcaste/ jati
c. Ablution
i. Washing rituals/ restore purity
d. Religious caste system is now being replaced by a system based on
material wealth
Caste
Occupation
Brahman
Priests and teachers
Kshatriya
Rulers and soldiers
Vaishya
Merchants and traders
Shudra
Peasants and laborers
Dalit (untouchables)
The outcastes; degrading or polluting
labor
III. Estate
a. System of medieval Europe consisting
b. Groups
i. Nobility
1. Wealth families who ruled the country
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2. Owned land to defend the king
3. Practiced primogeniture ( first son inherits land)
ii. Clergy
1. Roman catholic church
2. Owned a lot of land and collected taxes
3. King's had to get the pope's permission to become crowned
iii. Commoners/serfs
1. Belonged to the land
2. Can only move out of serfdom if knighted or called into a
religious vocation
c. Women
i. Women belonged to the estate of their husband
ii. No women were in the second caste
IV. Class
a. Based primarily on income, education, and prestige of occupation
b. Individuals can change their class based on achievements
i. Social mobility
1. Movement up or down the social caste ladder
II. What determines social class?
a. Karl Marx: The means of production
i. Social class depends on people's relationship to the means of production
1. Tools, factories, land, and investment capital used to produce wealth
ii. Worker's revolution would overthrow capitalism
iii. False class consciousness
1. Workers mistakenly think they are capitalists
iv. There's just two classes of people:
1. Bourgeoisie
a. Upper class
b. Capitalist
2. Proletariat
a. Lower class
b. Workers
3. Lumpenproleterait
a. People living on the margin of society
i. Farmers
ii. Peasants
iii. Beggars
iv. Vagrants
v. Criminals
b. Max Weber: Property, Power, and Prestige
i. Social class has 3 components:
1. Property (wealth)
a. Ownership is not the only significant aspect of property
b. Managers control production but don't own it
2. Power
a. Ability to control others even over their objections
b. Property is a major source of power but not the only one
3. Prestige
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