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Lecture 3

SOCL 2001 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Social Environment, Harold Garfinkel, Body Image

Course Code
SOCL 2001

of 6
I. Society makes us human
a. Nature
a.i. Heredity
b. Nurture
a.i. Social environment
a.i.1. Contact with other
b. Child Development
a.i. Feral
a.i.1. Children assumed to be raised by wild animals away from humans
a.i.2. Example: raised by wolves, jungle book, Tarzan
a.ii. Isolated
a.i.1. Language is key to human development
a.i.1.a. Separates humans from animals
a.i.2. Without language there would be no culture
a.i.3. Orphanage experiment
a.i.1.a. Skeels and Dye wanted to test the hypothesis of children in
orphanages have lower IQ's
a.i.1.b. The findings were those who had close relations with
humans developed higher intelligence
a.i.2. The longer the children lack stimulating interaction the more
difficult they have intellectually
a.ii. Socialization
a.i.1. The process by which people learn the characteristics of their
group the knowledge, skills, attitudes, values, norms, and actions thought
appropriate for them
a.i.2. Cooley
a.i.1.a. Concluded that producing a self is an essential part of how
society makes us human
a.i.1.a.i. Sense of self develops from human interaction
a.i.1.b. Self
a.i.1.a.i. The unique human capacity of being able to see
ourselves from the outside; how we think others see us
a.i.1.b. Looking-glass self
a.i.1.a.i. Process by which self develops through
internalizing other's reactions towards us
a.i.1.a.ii. 3 elements
We imagine how we appear to those around
We interpret other's reactions
We develop a self-concept
a.i.1.a.iii. True around the world
a.i.2. Mead
a.i.1.a. Play is important in developing a self
a.i.1.b. Taking the role of the other
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a.i.1.a.i. Putting yourself in someone else's shoes;
understanding how someone else feels and thinks
a.i.1.b. Significant others
a.i.1.a.i. An individual who significantly influences someone
a.i.1.b. Generalized others
a.i.1.a.i. The culture and expectations of people "in general"
the child's ability to take the role of the generalized other is s
significant step in the development of self
a.i.1.b. 3 stages as we learn to take the role of another
a.i.1.a.i. Imitation
Mimic others
a.i.1.a.ii. Play
Pretend to take the roles of specific people
a.i.1.a.iii. Team games
Organized play
a.i.1.b. Self has two parts
a.i.1.a.i. "I"
Self as subject
a.i.1.a.ii. "me"
Self as object
a.i.1.a.iii. Both our self and our mind are social products
a.i.1.a.iv. True around the world
a.i.2. Piaget
a.i.1.a. How we learn to reason
a.i.1.b. 4 stages of natural process
a.i.1.a.i. Sensorimotor
Understanding limited to direct contact
a.i.1.a.ii. Preoperational
Develop the ability to use symbols
a.i.1.a.iii. Concrete operational
Reasoning abilities remain concrete
a.i.1.a.iv. Formal operational
Capable of abstract thinking
a.i.1.b. Theory being refined
a.i.2. Animal Development
a.i.1.a. Rhesus Monkey Experiment
a.i.1.a.i. The monkeys clanged to the "mother" who gave
them a sense of physical interaction
a.i.1.a.ii. The monkeys were not able to adjust to normal
monkey life
a.ii. Learning personality, morality, and emotions
a.i.1. Freud
a.i.1.a. Developed a theory of the origin of personality
a.i.1.b. Personality consists of 3 elements
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a.i.1.a.i. Id
Inborn drive that causes us to seek self-
Immediate fulfillment of
a.i.1.a.ii. Ego
Balancing force between the id and the
demands of society
iii) Superego
Conscience; internalized culture
a.Sociological evaluation
i. Inborn and subconscious motivations are the primary
reasons for human behavior
Denies the central principle of sociology
1. Kohlberg
a.We go through a sequence of stages as we develop morality
b. Builds on Piaget's work
a.i. Children start at the amoral stage
No "right" or "wrong"
a.ii. Ages 7-10 are in the pre-conventional stage
They have learned rules, and they follow them and
stay out of trouble
a.iii. Age 10 are in the conventional stage
Morality means following the culture they have
a.iv. Post-conventional stage
People are able to reflect on abstract principles and
judge people's behavior according to these principles
b. Criticisms
a.i. Post-conventional is not a universal reasoning in all
2. Use of Socialization
a.i. Paul Ekman
Everyone experiences six basic emotions
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