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Chemistry & Biochemistry
CHM 142
Dr.James D.Garrity

Chemical Equilibrium—a dynamic process in which concentrations of reactants and products remain constant over time  Use double arrow  Concentrations are reactants and products are not necessarily equal at equilibrium  Rate of reaction forward is equal rate of reaction in reverse. Equilibrium constant (K)—ratio of forward and reverse constants, or ratio of product to reactant concentrations (or partial pressures) for a reaction  K doesn’t tell you anything about the rate at which equilibrium is reached Law of Mass Action—equilibrium constant expression at chemical equilibrium has a characteristic value at a given temperature Mass Action Expression— Ideal gas law: PV = nRT  P = (n/v)RT o n/v is molarity  PA = [A]RT  Kp = (RT)^(C+D-A-B)  Kp = K (RT)^ Δn o Δn = number of moles of gaseous product – moles of gaseous reactant o So, K p= K cwhen you have the same number of moles on both sides K of a reverse reaction is the reciprocal of K for the forward reaction K value for a reaction that is ―n‖ multiple of the original reaction is original K^n For the sum of 2 equations, K for the overall equation is K1*K 2 reaction quotient (Q)  equilibrium expression and the mass action expression/reaction quotient are mathematically the same o When equilibrium concentrations are used, it is equilibrium expression. When any values are used, it is mass action expression/reaction quo
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