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Lecture

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY 111
Professor
Dr.Palladino
Semester
Summer

Description
Learning—a relatively permanent change in behavior or the potential to make a response that occurs as the result of an experience.  Maturation is not learning. You don‘t ‗learn‘ to walk. Classical Conditioning  Ian Pavlov o Physiologist interested in digestion o Won Noble Prize in Medicine in 1904 o Collected Saliva from dogs o Psychic Secretion—Pavlov‘s term for reaction o Saliva followed footsteps, unlocking the door, keys o Stumbled upon Classical Conditioning  Responses are elicited/pulled from the organism.  If we have the right stimulus, we can make the organism respond in a certain way  Involuntary, reflect ANS  Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS or US)—built in. Does not need to be learned.  Unconditioned Response (UCR)—UCS gives rise to UCR  Neutral Stimulus—elicits no response before conditioning.  Conditioned Stimulus (CS)—learned  Conditional Response (CR)—learned  Before Conditioning o CS means nothing, elicits no response (bell) o UCS elicits UCR (hotdog)  During Conditioning o Associate CS with UCS, elicits response  After Conditioning o CS elicits CR  Essentially, Signal Substitution  Elements of Classical Conditioning o Generalization—stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimulus will elicit the response. Response is spreading out to other stimuli. (snake—rope, red—orange) o Discrimination—opposite of generalization. (CR=Red, will not response to green) o Acquisition—training stage during which a particular response is learned o Forward Conditioning—CS presented first, followed by UCS with ~.5 second gap. o Blocking—conditionability of CS is weakened when it is paired with a UCS that has been previously associated with another CS o Extinction—get rid of a response. Extinction occurs with repeated presentation of CS alone without UCS. o Spontaneous Recovery—response will come back after extinction. Forces keeping you from responding weaken over time. (ex. Bad fall while skiing)  Application of Classical Conditioning o Can an infant hear?  UCS=pinprick  UCR=withdrawal  CS=bell  CR=withdrawal  Drug Tolerance—Bodies have a natural tendency to attempt to counteract drugs, which is what helps to build up tolerance. So, if a routine is normally followed before taking drug (specific location), this routine can become a CS for the body to begin effects to counteract drug. So, if drug is taken in absence of the routine, the amount normally needed for desired effect (after tolerance) may cause an overdose because the body is not preparing itself in the way that it normally does.  Attitudes—classical conditioning can create an attitude toward something, if it is often paired with a positive or negative UCS.  Taste-Aversion—development of aversion to flavor that has been paired with illness. Most often, it is a novel flavor. Illness can take place hours after food is consumed. Even if higher brain knows this food did not cause the illness, it often cannot overpower the primitive association causing the aversion. o Kids undergoing chemotherapy who ate a weird ice cream before did not develop as many other food aversions because the ice cream blocked them. Operant Conditioning  B.F. Skinner  People are essentially robots, product of their environment.  Responses are said to be emitted  The participant must make a response to produce a change in his environment.  Voluntary, reflect CNS  Key Concept is reinforce o Either positive or negative o Primary (related to biology of organism) or secondary (conditioned or learned)  Primary Positive: food, sleep, shelter, sex (Holiday Inn Reinforcers)  Secondary Positive: money, credit cards, points, bingo chips, grades  Primary Negative: shock, pain, extreme temperatures, noises  Secondary Negative: low self esteem, exclusion, violation of personal space Token Economy  Used in psychiatric hospitals, juvenile detention centers, group homes, family homes  Use tokens (secondary reinforcers) that can be turned in for a back-up reinforce  Built on Contingencies (If, then Statements)  Law of effect—Thorndike‘s view that reinforcers promote learning, whereas punishment leads to unlearning. o Ex. Animals in puzzle boxes  Shaping—form of operant conditioning in which a desired response is taught by reinforcement of successive responses that more closely resemble target response. o Ex. Mute mental patient taught to speak by demanding first eye contact, then lip movement, then speech, and being rewarded with gum.  Positive reinforcement o Most of Skinner‘s work involved rats and pigeons. Used ―Skinner Box). Rat presses lever, receives pellets.  Cumulative Record: charts all of the responses that an organism has made up to a point. It can‘t go down. o Pigeon Ping Pong, Rat Basketball, and Student Rat o Little Johnny (six-year-old with brain damage). Johnny bangs his head against wall, followed by attention from parents.  Extinction by not rewarding behavior  Extinction burst—behavior increases initially (looking for the positive reinforcement) o Greenspoon Effect: We do not have to be aware of contingencies in order for them to be effective in altering behavior.  Classroom behavior of teacher  Annoying telephone calls and reinforcers  Baseline: # of plural words during an interview  Experimental Stage: reinforce plural words  Results: # of plural words goes up o Premack Principle [a.k.a. Grandma‘s rule]—highly desirable behavior is used to reinforce a less desirable behavior  Eat broccoli (less desirable) before ice cream (highly desirable)  Shaping [a.k.a successive approximations]: reinforcing behaviors that approximate desired behavior  Case of mutism (move lips, speak)  Shirt buttoning, Figure 8s, most animal tricks  There is no difference between positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement in terms of their effects on behavior. They both increase behavior.  Negative Reinforcement—withdrawal of negative reinforcer is negative reinforcement. o Stuttering. White noise plays until individual speaks fluently. This is negative reinforcement because a desired behavior is reinforced with the removal of an undesirable stimulus. o Headaches. You take aspirin, pain goes away o Phobias  Two-process theory—Classical Conditioning explains why phobias develop, but not why they continue.  Punishment—Withdrawal of positive reinforcer or presentation of a negative reinforcer. o Punishment supresses reduces behavior, but does not often eliminate behavior. o Punishment can also be positive and negative. Positive punishment is inserting an unwanted response and negative punishment is removing a desired response. o Smuck‘s Story  Discriminative Stimulus—stimulus telling participant that a response will be reinforced  Schedules of reinforcement o Extinction  Behavior followed by nothing (no reinforcement)  behavior is extinguished o Continuous  Every time you behave a certain way, there is reinforcement.  Ex. Soda machine o Partial or Intermittent  Ratio Schedules of Reinforcement (think ―number‖)  FR (fixed ratio). After a fixed number of behaviors, there will be reinforcement  FR of 1 would be continuous reinforcement  Ex. Piece work ($ for completing widgets), being paid by bushel for picking apples  VR (Variable Ratio) –do not know how many behaviors are needed to produce reinforcement. (A mean of the number of behaviors needed is the # for VR)  Can lead to high rates of behavior, particularly when we are dealing with high numbers.  Ex. Las Vegas one-armed bandit  Resistant to extinction –hard to get rid of.  Nick Nerd and Sarah—if she says yes once, he thinks there is alwa
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