Lecture 7: Primate Sociality, Social Behavior & Culture
1. Why are primates social?
2. What is special about primate societies and social behavior?
3. How do primates acquire food?
Why are primates social?
*Social signal establish and maintain social relationships
*Social behaviors in primates appear to enhance survival and reproduction
*Social behaviors in primates are though to be maintained by natural selection
*Primate societies are organized (hierarchy)
*Primates form long term social relationships, which provide the backbone of social
*Primate societies have a wide variety of residence patterns
*6 patterns based on the number of adult males and females in the group
1. one male, multi female
2. one female, multi male
3. multi male, multi female
4. all male
5. one male, one female (monogamous)
*Primate reproductive strategies are different between sexes
*Females compete with each other for resources to support young
-Affects social behaviors & food intake
-implication on reproduction
*Males compete with each other for access to females
-Affects male body and canine size
-Degree of male-male competition is correlated with the degree of sexual
dimorphism in body/canine size
-males weigh 300-400 lbs; females 150-250 lbs
*Among primates, sexual dimorphism in body and canine size is directly related to group
*Groups with higher degree of competition for mates tend to have greater dimorphism
*Product of sexual selection