Class Notes (835,241)
United States (324,065)
Anthropology (107)
ANP 201 (34)
All (17)
Lecture 11

ANP202 Lecture 11

3 Pages
Unlock Document

ANP 201
All Professors

Lecture 11 Genus Homo- Earlier Species *In the Pliocene, the climate shifted cooler & drier *This made food increasingly seasonal, tough and difficult to find *Two forms of Australopithecines seem to have adapted differently: -Robust species- morphologically (larger teeth, bones, muscles) via specializing in diets of seeds and nuts -Gracile species- behaviorally via wider dietary diversity- they probably gave rise to the genus Homo The Genus: Homo *Evolved 3-2.5mya *Bigger brains -Tool use -Hunting -Complex social behavior -Control of fire *Species: habilis, erectus, heidelbergensis, neanderthalensis, sapiens Homo habilis, 2.5-1.6mya *”Handy man” *First discovered by Louis Leakey at Olduvai Gorge, but specimens found in East and South Africa *Postcranial similarities to A. africanus, but cranially different: -larger brain (650 cc) -smaller teeth -less prognathic face *Immediate ancestor of habilis unconfirmed -Tim White suggests A. garhi *H. habilis lived when grasslands were spreading (increasing habitat diversity) *Skull and tooth morphology suggest dietary variability in Homo habilis -adaptive flexibility *H. habilis used Oldowan tools -Tools are found in association with habilis -Today, it is widely accepted that habilis as the first hominid species purposefully made and used stone tools *Tools became fundamental to survival, unlike for australopithecines *Stone tools important for obtaining food resources as well as for processing foods -H. habilis were probably scavengers rather than hunters, assessed from faunal evidence Oldowan Tools *Two tools types: -flakes -hammer stones *Cutting, chopping, and crushing *Meat processing *Evidence of Butchering in Faunal Remains -Animal teeth marks are often present underneath cut marks. What does this imply? Homo habilis had camp sites *High density of tools indicates camp sites used by habilis *Same places for extended periods of time *This is clearly different from what we see in living non-human primates Homo erectus, 1.8-0.3mya *”Upright man” *First discovered by Eugene Dubois in Java, but specimens are found in Africa, Asia and Europe *Cranial capacity average 950cc Evolution of H. erectus *African fossils are the more robust than Asian or
More Less

Related notes for ANP 201

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.