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Lecture 11

ANP202 Lecture 11

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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANP 201
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Fall

Description
Lecture 11 Genus Homo- Earlier Species *In the Pliocene, the climate shifted cooler & drier *This made food increasingly seasonal, tough and difficult to find *Two forms of Australopithecines seem to have adapted differently: -Robust species- morphologically (larger teeth, bones, muscles) via specializing in diets of seeds and nuts -Gracile species- behaviorally via wider dietary diversity- they probably gave rise to the genus Homo The Genus: Homo *Evolved 3-2.5mya *Bigger brains -Tool use -Hunting -Complex social behavior -Control of fire *Species: habilis, erectus, heidelbergensis, neanderthalensis, sapiens Homo habilis, 2.5-1.6mya *”Handy man” *First discovered by Louis Leakey at Olduvai Gorge, but specimens found in East and South Africa *Postcranial similarities to A. africanus, but cranially different: -larger brain (650 cc) -smaller teeth -less prognathic face *Immediate ancestor of habilis unconfirmed -Tim White suggests A. garhi *H. habilis lived when grasslands were spreading (increasing habitat diversity) *Skull and tooth morphology suggest dietary variability in Homo habilis -adaptive flexibility *H. habilis used Oldowan tools -Tools are found in association with habilis -Today, it is widely accepted that habilis as the first hominid species purposefully made and used stone tools *Tools became fundamental to survival, unlike for australopithecines *Stone tools important for obtaining food resources as well as for processing foods -H. habilis were probably scavengers rather than hunters, assessed from faunal evidence Oldowan Tools *Two tools types: -flakes -hammer stones *Cutting, chopping, and crushing *Meat processing *Evidence of Butchering in Faunal Remains -Animal teeth marks are often present underneath cut marks. What does this imply? Homo habilis had camp sites *High density of tools indicates camp sites used by habilis *Same places for extended periods of time *This is clearly different from what we see in living non-human primates Homo erectus, 1.8-0.3mya *”Upright man” *First discovered by Eugene Dubois in Java, but specimens are found in Africa, Asia and Europe *Cranial capacity average 950cc Evolution of H. erectus *African fossils are the more robust than Asian or
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