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Lecture 12

ANP202 Lecture 12A

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Michigan State University
ANP 201

Lecture 12A: Archaic & Modern Homo sapiens Archaic Homo sapiens *Two species (controversial) 1. Early archaic: H. heidelbergensis 2. Late archaic: H. neanderthalensis Homo heidelbergensis 0.5-0.3mya *Early archaic Homo sapiens (possibly >1 species) *Several forms of fossil hominids that have a combination of archaic-derived traits in their skulls -1250cc— skulls are larger and more gracile than in erectus -Brow ridges are similar to erectus- large -European specimens have larger nasal bones & nasal apertures (openings) *Found in Africa, Europe Behavior of heidelbergensis *Made Acheulian tools *More efficient at making tools than H. erectus *May have been the first hominid to build shelters, inferring from the environment *Homo heidelbergensis is likely the immediate common ancestor for two species: 1.Neanderthals in Europe 2. Homo sapiens in Africa Homo neanderthalensis 130-24kya *Late archaic homo sapiens (neanderthals) *Europe, Middle East, West Asia *Some traits are similar to heidelbergensis, but some traits are derived and unique to them, mostly reflecting adaptations to cold climates -1400cc— larger brains *Primitive features: prominent brow ridge & nasal bone, wide nasal aperture, mid-facial prognathism *Derived features: upright (but low) forehead, occipital bun, large infraorbital foramina *Neanderthal postcranial traits 1. Slightly shorter than modern Homo sapiens 2. Heavily built 3. Hyoid bone- they were capable of speech Neanderthal’s adaptations to cold climates *Large nasal aperture- helps moisten the cold, dry air *Large infraorbital foramina, help deliver greater blood flow to the face *Short stocky build, helps with heat conservation Tools of Neanderthals *Neanderthals made Mousterian tools *A variety of materials including flint, crafted using the Levallois Technique *Stone tools in Neanderthal stores often associated with animal bones- they were meat eaters Levallois Technique *A specific technique to remove flakes from prepared flint cores, indicative of an advanced cognition Behaviors of Neanderthals *They had lots of injuries (severe but healed) *They cared for their old, sick and injured *They had a social support system *Buried their dead *Wore clothing *Likely built shelters Controversial fate of Neanderthals- 2 views: 1. Died out 2. Genetically contributed to modern humans (Wolpoff) Modern Homo sapiens (humans) *Evolution of modern Homo sapiens— 2 models 1. Out of Africa -Replacement/Speciation model -Modern H. sapiens arose only in sub-Saharan Africa -90kya, a group of modern H.s expanded in to Asia, Australia and later Europe, replacing (no interbreeding) earlier forms of Homo (erectus in Asia and neanderthal in Europe) 2. Multiregional continuity -Following the dispersal of erectus (1.7mya), modern H. sapiens evolved concurrently in different regions of the world -Small size of initial colonizing groups & adaptation to local environments established regional differences -But gene flow across regions prevented rise of multiple species— instead resulted in one species without replacement *So how did humans evolve? -Both models were once considered equally viable -mtDNA evidence & fossil evidence indicated OOA -Very recently, high-throughput DNA sequencing studies of nDNA provided support for the Assimilation Model Assimilation Model *Elements of both OOA & MCM models *Modern H.s. evolved in Africa sometime within 200-100kya, a group of them migrated out of Africa. In Europe, they interbred with Neanderthal
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