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ANP202 The Cell and DNA

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ANP 201
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The Cell and DNA Ch. 3 Big Questions 1. What is the genetic code? *DNA -DNA is the chemical that makes up each chromosome, contained in the nucleus of the cell -Within each chromosome, DNA molecules (nucleotides) form a sequence, or code 2. What does the genetic code (DNA) do? *Replicates *Provides codes for proteins 3. What is the genetic structure of human variation *Genotype and phenotype Two Types of DNA *Nuclear DNA -Contained within the nucleus of a cell -Makes up chromosomes -Complete set called genome *Mitochondrial DNA -Contained in mitochondria in cell’s cytoplasm -Inherited from the mother DNA *The blueprint of life -structure -function *Chemical template for every aspect of an organism *Watson, Crick & Franklin clarified the structure *A strand of nucleotides *Contains coding regions (genes) and non-coding regions (“junk” DNA) Structure of DNA *Double helix, ladder-like structure *Ladder formed by nucleotides *Nucleotide -sugar phosphate backbone paired with a nitrogen base -4 possible bases -Adenine (A) -Thymine (T) -Guanine (G) -Cytosince (C) Chromosomes *Packages of DNA strands *Occur in homologous (matching) pairs -One in each pair from each parent *2 types: -Autosomes (non-sex chromosomes) -Sex chromosomes (X,Y) -Females are XX, males are XY Human Chromosomes *Karyotype -The characteristics (#, size, type, etc.) of the complete set of chromosomes contained within each somatic cell for an organism or a species *Here is human karyotype. We have 46 chromosomes Cells *Cells in our world have two basic types -Prokaryote (no true nucleus) -Eukaryote (with true nucleus) *We focus on eukaryotic cells Cell Types *Two types of cells -Somatic (body) cells -Diploid: a cell that has a full complement of paired chromosomes -Replicated via mitosis -Gamete (reproductive) cells -Haploid: a cell that has a single set of unpaired chromosomes, half of the genetic material -Produced via meiosis Mitosis *Somatic cell replication *Results in 2 identical, diploid daughter cells Meiosis *Gamete production *Starts with one diploid cell *Results in four, non-identical haploid gamete cells (4 sperm cells/1 egg cell) Meiosis-related terms *Cross-over: the process by which homologous chromosomes wrap around each other and exchange genetic info during meiosis *Recombination: the exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes as a result of cross-over *Haplotypes: a group of alleles that tend to be inherited as a unit due to their spatial proximity on a single chromosome -Genes that are close together are less likely to recombine, and thus are passed on as a unit for generations -Groups of related haplotypes are called haplogroups *Gene linkage: the inheritance of a package of genes (e.g. haplotype) from the same chromosome -Provides an exception to the Law of Independent Assortment *Translocations: rearrangement of chromosomes due to the insertion of genetic material from one chromosome to another (non-homologous) -E.g. 1/3 of chromosome 21 joins onto chromosome 14 results in a type of Down syndrome *Nondisjunctions: the failure of
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