• RelativeAge v AbsoluteAge:
◦ RelativeAge: evaluating age while comparing to something else
◦ AbsoluteAge: placing age with scales of years. (twenty thousand years from today)
• Terminus Post Quem: the date after the artifact was deposited
• TerminusAnte Quem: the date before the artifact was deposited
◦ Can be done through stratigraphy
▪ refers to looking at how things are inserted in the ground by looking at profiles
◦ Seriation: refers to establishing sequence via whats similar to an object
▪ Stylistic: orders artifacts according to similarity and style
▪ Frequency: temporal or spatial. Orders artifacts according to the relative frequency of an
◦ Sequence Comparison: what object came first or last based on stratigraphy
▪ Assumes that its existing at the same time period
▪ Don't necessarily have to be exact
▪ One of the weakest methods of establishing age
◦ Geochronology: establishing the age of an artifact based on the geographic environment.
▪ Associated with dated geographical events
▪ Looking at the natural formation of terraces
▪ Also uses Dendrochronology
▪ Counting rings on a tree
▪ Annual growth rates
▪ Helps build a sequence but it needs to be verified by a couple sources.
▪ It has to be a tree species that archaeologists used
▪ When was that tree cut down?
▪ You need almost 1,000 separate trees and the right kind of tree and one