Chapter 11 (class)
• Prisons Today:
◦ State Prisons = 1,000
◦ Federal Prisons = 80
◦ Prison Population = 1,366,721
◦ 6.6% are women
• Security Levels
◦ Maximum security- high walla, fences , secure cells, Primarily concerned with custody
◦ Medium security- Greater inmate freedom
◦ Minimum security- dormitory-like setting, private rooms, unarmed correctional officers
Primarily concerned with rehabilitation
◦ Supermax Security
• One out of every four state institutions is a large, maximum security prison
• Early Punishments
◦ Before prisons, what was the form of punishment?
◦ Corporal punishmentIncreasedOften cruel and torturous
◦ Public Humiliation
• What is the cost of incarceration?
◦ State Prisons= $11,302 per inmate
◦ Federal Prisons= $13,162 per inmate
• The primary force that keeps minimum security prisoners from escaping is their own restraint
• **Recidivism= The repetition of criminal behavior. This includes post incarceration: arrest,
conviction, correctional commitment, or correctional status changes within a given period of
• The difference between state and federal prisons:
◦ State prisons= most have been convicted of a crime
◦ Federal Prisons= most have been convicted of a drug offense
◦ Prison Capacity: size of the correctional population an institution can effectively hold
◦ Rate Capacity: Inmate population a facility can handle according to experts
◦ Operational Capacity: Prison managements estimate of capacity
◦ Design Capacity:Architectural capacity design- inmate population the institution was
originally built to handle
◦ Overcrowding is a way of life in most jails and prisons.
• Prison Staff
◦ 80% male and 20% female
◦ 70% are white
◦ 22% are black
◦ 5% are hispanic • Keeping track of inmates: what is the name of the control mechanism used by correctional staff
at regular intervals during the day? The Count
• Federal Prison System:
◦ 1895: Leavenworth, Kansas- First non-military federal prison opens.
◦ 1906: Second federal prison opens inAtlanta.
◦ 1927:Alderson, West Virginia- First federal prison for women
◦ 1933: Springfield, Missouri- Medical Center for federal Prisoners
◦ 1934:Alcatraz begins operations.
• 5 Security Levels:
◦ Administrative maximum (ADMAX)
◦ High Security: US Peniten