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Lecture 1

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Michigan State University
HST 202

HST 202 Lecture Notes Origins and the “Old World” The Atlantic World I: Europe and Africa to 1500 1/9/13  Marketer Projection: Type of map named after its cartographer that distorts the size of a map by creating straight lines so you can “cross an ocean” o In contrast, a Peters Projection is more correct in size but distorts shape/position o The way we see maps affects the way we view the world around us – 3 world countries are shown as being smaller and on the “bottom” AFRICA:  Egypt – Ancient/Classical: o Ethnocentric (self-centered) o Inter-married so that many famous Egyptian faces actually came from other parts of the world o Well-positioned for trade routes, especially on maps centered on the Indian Ocean o Kush:  Islam: o Muslim armies expanded around the Mediterranean, Arabian Peninsula, and Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal) o Arabization: Spread of language and culture, mainly through scholars o Muslim people – people who practice Islam o Muslim land (Sahara) – ruled by a Muslim leader, desert in N. Africa o Sahel o Savannah o Travel on camels made the spread faster and farther reaching o “Old world slavery”  Based on captivity/conquered peoples  Involved more people than the Atlantic slave trade but it also lasted longer  Often traded W. Africans as slaves  Bilad as-Sudan: “Land of the Blacks” o Noted color but did not associate it with personal value  Ghana – Ancient: o Not Islamic o Primary export was gold that was often traded for salt with Arabs  Mali: o Took over Ghana o Wealthy and involved in trade o Primary export was gold o Became Islamic o Manasa Musa: Leader who made a pilgrimage to Mecca and became famous for his generosity along the way o Timbuktu: Trade, cultural, and scholarship center  Songhai: o Empire that eclipsed Mali (1500s) o Islamic land  Smaller states existed in the east but had less Islamic influence  Exported them as captives o Another primary export was gold  Hausaland  Swahili Coast  Red Sea/Indian Ocean: o Faster trade than across the desert o Lots of slave trade  Mostly women and children  Value is not viewed the same way as it is in more recent history  Ideology: Belief system born out of reality that explains why things are the way they are o Race/racism as a social contstruct o W. Africans have slave trade embedded in their culture which influenced the start of the Atlantic slave trade o African Diaspora did not spread free people
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