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Lecture 3

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HST 202

HST 202 Lecture Notes Beginnings & the “New World” Colonial Beginnings 1/16/13 EUROPE IN THE AGE OF DISCOVERY: • PORTUGAL: o Unified under John I in the 1380s o Lots of maritime experience due to geographic location o Made advancedments in discovery of close islands where small native populations were quickly wiped out by European disease o Explorers:  Prince Henry the Navigator: Explorer with a commitment to maritime discovery with money and determination to avoid Muslim and Italian middlemen in trade routes and made West African trade contacts by the 1440s  Bartholemew Dias: Sailed around the Cape of Good Hope in 1487  Vasco de Gamma: Rounded Cape of Good Hope and reached India in 1497 o Why was West Africa not colonized?  They had empires and knowledge of Europeans/Christians due to trade routes and written language used in Islam  Had gold, metal tools, and textiles  Europeans had no unique trade goods to offer  Germs were on their side • Africans had been exposed to European germs through trade routes • Europeans were afraid of malaria in Africa  Portugal did not have enough sailing technology to launch a full invasion o Transatlantic Slave Trade:  Portugal needed a workforce for sugar plantations because they had gotten a taste for sugar which was once a rare good  Africa had a surplus of captives they were happy to get rid of  Small bands and tribes could easily be pitted against each other to collect more slaves  Seen as a business and not regarding race • SPAIN’S GOLDEN AGE: o War/Unification:  Battles between factions of Spain in an attempt by the Catholics to unite the country under their rule  Surrender of Granada in 1492 finished the war uniting Spain under the rule of Ferdinand and Isabella o Funds could be redirected from the war to exploration  Christophe
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