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Lecture 11

Lecture 11

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HST 202

HST 202 Lecture Notes The New Nation From Revolution to Rebellion 2/18/13 ISSUES FACED BY CONGRESS AFTER THE REVOLUTION: Power:  Eastern Massachusetts leaders lacked power and policies  Little to no government had ruled during the war so colonists were not used to it and felt no connection or loyalty to Congress Money:  Colonists had just fought off English taxes so they had no revenue  Soldiers were demanding money to cash in for their certificates o Shay’s Rebellion (1787):  Daniel Shays led farmers from Western Massachusetts that had fought in the war and come home to debt to capture military equipment  Congress put down the rebels by starting a debt forgiveness program  Revealed class conflicts of the early nation  Upper class supported a strong government  Common people felt distant and excluded from Congress  Inflation made currency worthless o 1777 (start of war): Worth ½ face value o 1781 (end of war): Worth ½ of 1% of face value Land and People:  Population explosion (ex. 100,000 people lived in Tennessee by 1783 when the Treaty of Paris was signed) made the government realize they needed to deal with the western land quickly to allow for expansion  Northwest Territory: States ceded their western land to Congress making it federal land (1790-1802)  Land Ordinances: o 1784: Thomas Jefferson suggested that people could colonize, establish a population, and declare statehood but Congress saw this as too liberal and rejected it o 1785: Made a plan to survey the land and sell it for $1/acre  More controlled process  Hoped to make money  Ideally open to everyone but only the rich could afford it o Left question of what to do with squatters and Native Americans FORMING THE CONSTITUTION/FEDERAL GOVERNMENT:  Articles of Confederation were too weak  Met in summer of 1787 to write the Constitution Representation:  Plans considered: o Virginia Plan:  Strong central government with 3 branches (executive, legislative, and judicial)  Each state would have a federalist republican government  Plan for admitting new states and amending the Constitution  Favored states with large populations by having proportional representation and would keep their wealth/autonomy o New Jersey Plan:  One central governing body (House of Representatives)  Plural executive that Congress voted into office  Favored states with small populations through equal representation  The VA and NJ Plans mainly clashed over the issue of representation, which overlapped with the issue of slavery, leading to compromises: o Connecticut Compromise: Legislative branch would be made of two parts  Senate: Equal representation with 2 from each state  House of Representatives: Representation would be proportional to population o Three-Fifths Compromise:  Decided that the population would include only 3/5 of the slaves  North did not want slaves to count because they would inflate their population and they were adopting new ways of eliminating slavery o Abolishment o Gradua
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