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Lecture 19

Lecture 19

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HST 202

HST 202 Lecture Notes The Looming Crisis Reform and Abolition 3/27/13 Indian Removal:  1830: Cherokee take Georgia to Federal Court o They had assimilated well with the settlers way of life o Court ruled in favor of Cherokee land rights  May 28, 1830: Indian Removal Act o Andrew Jackson was anti-Indian and ignored the Supreme Court o Forcible removal of Indian groups from the deep south to “Indian Territory” (Oklahoma) where they were promised to be left alone o Considered Indians a security risk o Claimed that he was protecting Indians from racial violence by white Georgians o Many Americans disagreed with Jackson because the Indians had assimilated and they now welcomed them  1836: Small group signed away Cherokee land o Some didn’t recognize the treaty o Stand-offs between Indians themselves  Cherokee were often moved at gunpoint and called their removal the Trail of Tears Religious Movements:  United Believers in Christ’s Second Appearing: o Also called Shakers (more radical Quakers) o Dances were spiritual and a tourist attraction o Believed Ann Lee was the female embodiment of Christ o Gender equality in leadership o Celibate o Separate communities of groups of 50-100 o Often made furniture to support lifestyle  Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints: o Also called Mormons o Founded by Joe Smith o Driven out through violence and persecution o Polygamous o Set up a successful community in the Utah Territory (1847) o Book of Mormon said Jesus came to North America after the Middle East  Evangelists: o Revivals to bring people together and inspire excitement about Christianity (1830s-1860s) – not changing it o Explained social problems with morals and said society could be improved by more Godly lives o Baptists and Methodists were the most popular denominations o Evangelical reform movements: Formed due to belief that social problems were due to a lack of religion and morality  American Bible Society- Distributed Bibles  Female Moral Reform Society- Tried to bring women out of prostitution  American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions- Raised money and supported missionaries abroad o Cities:  Seen as places for immorality to thrive, especially with young men  Burnt Over District: Upstate NY by Erie Canal where it was so consumed with Evangelicalism the area was said to be “burnt”  Increased immigration made cities poor o Benevolent Empire: Goal of making a moral empire by bringing Christianity west Social Change in the North:  Middle class: o Response to need for new jobs o Factory system used machines which de-skilled the labor force and made workers expendable o Artisans became obsolete and poor o Received salaries instead of wages o Less physical labor o Clung to the idea of the benevolent empire  National Trade Union: Formed in 1834 to bargain for good wages and working conditions  Irish: o Mostly Catholic which made Americans anxious o Depicted negatively as drunks, monkeys, violent, and untrustworthy clergy o Targets for American sentiment of nativism o Potato famine of 1830s-40s increased immigration o Barred from many jobs and forced to do dangerous work o Women outnumbered men and often worked as domestic servants  Movements: o Temperance Movement:  Tried to decrease American consumption of alcohol 
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