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Lecture 24

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HST 202

HST 202 Lecture Notes The Civil War II The Civil War: Battlefields 4/15/13 This class discusses the Civil War from the view of how it fits into the ideas of sectionalism, national expansion, and daily lives. Slavery, in particular, affected everyone in a unique way. PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION:  Election of 1860: o 4 candidates, but only 2 were supported by each region  Northern candidates:  Republican  Northern Democrat  Southern candidates:  Constitutional Unionist  Southern Democrat o Sectionalism between the north and south made a candidate’s stance on slavery determine who would vote for you  North – Anti-slavery  South – Pro-slavery o Lincoln (Northern candidate) won because the south was so divided  Disagreement among the Union o Secession: Leaving the Union o South Carolina seceded on Dec. 20, 1860 (Lincoln had not even been inaugurated) followed by Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas in January of 1861 o Remaining states disagreed among themselves o Abolitionist states still had a great deal of racism both in laws and society – the Free Soil Party was more concerned for lower class whites than slaves, immigrants, or natives  Lincoln’s Inaugural Address: o January 1861 o Initially supported unity and Free Soil ideas by calling secession “the essence of anarchy” o Did not want war over slavery because he knew it would cause him to lose support THE WAR:  Fort Sumter: o April 12, 1861 o Confederates sent troops to stop a possible invasion from the north at the port of Charleston, NC o Beauregard (Confederate) took over federal fort and fired on American troops o Effectively started the Civil War with the first official act of violent rebellion o Lincoln called for states to send militiamen in response  Tennessee, Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, Kentucky, and Missouri refused  Tennessee, Virginia, North Carolina, and Arkansas secede  West Virginia was formed because they did not want to secede with Virginia  Early Views and Strategies of the War: o Both sides started optimistic o South  Wanted total war and total destruction of the north  Strategized to blockade and stop an invasion o North
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