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Lecture 25

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HST 202

HST 202 Lecture Notes The Civil War II The Civil War: Home Fronts 4/17/13 Lincoln’s Initial Thoughts:  Originally reluctant to make the war about slavery o Wanted to keep loyalty of border states o North didn’t want to abolish slavery because they would have to compete for jobs o Wanted to unify the country peacefully since the generals were reluctant to engage in war with their old friends Change to War:  Fort Sumter was a federal fort manned by American troops  Lincoln could not ignore an attack from the Confederates  Lincoln asked for militiamen from each state but the upper south refused The Emancipation Proclamation:  Officially issued by Lincoln on January 1, 1863  Freed all slaves in rebelling states or states that were not a part of the Union  Allowed for enlistment of African Americans in the military  More symbolic than realistic  Why was it issued? o To hurt the south o To gain European support o To increase ranks The Draft:  Authorized by Lincoln along with the Emancipation Proclamation  African American troops o Arming black soldiers was controversial o Stereotype that black soldiers were unfit to serve because they were childlike o Given menial tasks and worked as servants rather than being trusted in combat (used as “machinery”) o Many more served in the navy than the army o Comprised 10% of the Union forces o 80 black officers at the end of war o Black women served as nurses, spies, and scouts o Gave blacks access to some literacy  Fort Pillow o 1864 o Forrest was a Confederate army leader o Massacre of black troops and contraband o South offered no quarter to black soldiers (would not take prisoners) even after surrender – which was standard Confederate policy Course of the War:  Battle of Gettysburg: o 3 day battle from July 1-3, 1863 o Turning point of the Civil War o Day 1:  Confederates successfully chased Union troops out o Day 2:  Lee sent a 3 pronged attack  Tides turned when the Union held the line at Little Round Top o Day 3:  Picket’s Charge – Confederates ran across the field toward the Union because Lee thought they hadn’t been reinforced but the Confederates ended up getting slaughtered  Lee had to retreat  Union hesitated to follow the Confederates which allowed them to escape o Helped regain Northern support yet show a need for change in leadership  Women’s Role: o North – Formed U.S. Sanitary Commission to distribute military supplies  Run by men but worked
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