HNF 150 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: High Fructose Corn Syrup, Corn Syrup, Corn Starch

11 views11 pages
26 Feb 2020
School
Course
Professor
1
CARBOHYDRATES
I. Carbohydrates =
Consists of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
Types of carbohydrates include (4):
-simple sugars-mono- and disaccharide
-oligosaccharides
-polysaccharides
-
Carbohydrates are our main source of energy.
Energy in carbohydrates originally came from the sun via __________.
1. Simple Sugars
A. Monosaccharides (3):
Ex: fructose, glucose
(circulates our bloodstream), galactose
B. Disaccharides (3):
-maltose, sucrose (most common, table sugar),
lactose (found in milk,
“lactose intolerance”)
-glucose is always involved as 1 of
the 2 sugars in a disaccharide
C. What is high fructose corn syrup? And how is it different than
sugar? Found in many processed foods. It comes from corn starch
(a lot of corn grown in Michigan, then starch present in corn is
saturated and ground up and its basically a long chain of glucose
and then it is treated chemically to be a mixture of glucose and
fructose made so that it is very sweet), high fructose corn syrup is
almost 50% fructose (a little more) and 50% glucose and then a
little bit amount of other sugars. However, sucrose is about 40%
fructose and 60% glucose. Corn syrup (regular) is 100% glucose.
2. Oligosaccharides = 3-10 monosaccharide units linked together in a chain
In legumes, whole wheat, some vegetables.
Some types: Inulin, Raffinose, Stachyose
We do not have the enzymes to digest their beta-glycosidic bonds
They are fermented by the bacteria in the colon
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 11 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
2
Bifidobacteria and other beneficial bacteria
These gut bacteria produce short-chain fatty acids and some B-
vitamins
Oligosaccharides increase absorption of some minerals
Can produce gas with large amounts
Present in human breast milk
helps shape a healthy intestinal microbe population in infant
3. Polysaccharides =really really long chain,
-glycogen is found in animals, amylopectin and amylose are found in plant starch
-good source of starch: enriched grains
4. Fiber = indigestible chains of glucose
A. What is the difference between Starch and Fiber? How is fiber digested?
-they are made out of the same individual sugar units, but starch is
something we are able to use whereas fiber is something we are unable to
use because we don’t have the enzymes to do so. Fiber going through the
small intestine undigested and then moves into the large intestine
B. 2 Types of fiber, health benefits
a. soluble fiber: oatmeal, bran, rye, fruits…help you feel full longer,
lower risk of: heart disease, diabetes, colon and rectal cancer,
b. insoluble fiber: whole grains, some veggies (ex: cellulose): helps
you feel full, alleviates constipation, lower risk of: colon and rectal
cancer, GI tract problems like hemorrhoids and appendicitis,
c. **most foods have a combination of soluble and insoluble fibers
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 11 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
3
C. Food Sources of Fiber = oatmeal, broccoli, bran, rye, barley, whole
wheats, seeds, many fruits and veggies, plant based foods, look above in
chart for more examples
D. How does soluble fiber lower blood cholesterol? Watch animation on D2L
for how fiber in food may lower cholesterol in body and write answer down
here (high fiber diet)
E. Lactose Intolerance =
Overall 75% of the world’s population is lactose intolerant
Alternatives for people who are lactose intolerant = there is a pill you can
take so that it can help you digest the lactose enzyme, almond milk,
II. Whole Grains
A. Parts of a Grain
B. Milling of Grain
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 11 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get OneClass Notes+

Unlimited access to class notes and textbook notes.

YearlyBest Value
75% OFF
$8 USD/m
Monthly
$30 USD/m
You will be charged $96 USD upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.