ProteinFS13 (1).doc

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Department
Human Nutrition and Foods
Course Code
HNF 150
Professor
Nichole Martinson

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HNF150 Fall 2013 N. Martinson Lecture Notes PROTEIN I. Protein Facts A. Protein contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and Nitrogen B. Amino acids are the building blocks of protein C. Some amino acids are Essential II. Functions of Proteins in the Body (5): 1. Enzymes 2.Peptide Proteins 3. Structural Proteins 4.Transport Proteins 5. Immunoproteins III. Structure of Amino Acids A. Backbone (2 groups): • Amine group (contains nitrogen) • Acid group B. Sidechain: Differ in (3): • Size • Shape • Charge C. There are 20 amino acids that are the building blocks of protein Examples include: Valine, Leucine, and Tyrosine D. Joined together by peptide bonds (Bond holding amino acids together). IV. What makes protein different from one another? • Formation of a side chain • Each amino acid can bond with 2 other amino acids 1 HNF150 Fall 2013 N. Martinson Lecture Notes V. Protein Synthesis: 2 HNF150 Fall 2013 N. Martinson Lecture Notes Sequence of each protein is determined by our genes. If the wrong Amino Acid is inserted it can cause major health problems Ex. Sickle cell anemia is when valine takes the place of glutamine and the protein is unable to carry oxygen. Ex. Phylketonuria (PKU) body can’t metabolize the aa phenylalanine to tyrosine. Build of up Phe can cause mental retardation and seizures. Makes tyrosine a conditionally essential amino acid. VI. Essential Amino Acids A. Essential amino acids = Amino acids that can’t be made by the body 1. Histidine 2. Isoleucine 3. Leucine 4. Lysine 5. Methionine 6. Phenylalanine 7. Threonine 8. Tryprophan 9. Valine B. Non-Essential Amino Acids = Amino acids that can be made by the body 1. Alanine 2. Arginine 3. Asparagine 4. Aspartic acid 5. Cysteine 6. Glutamic acid 7. Glutamine 8. Glycine 9. Proline 10. Serine 11. Tyrosine VII. Digestion • Stomach o Acid denatures protein strands and activates stomach enzymes (pepsin, HCI) • Small intestine 3 HNF150 Fall 2013 N. Martinson Lecture Notes o Pancreatic and small intestinal enzymes split polypeptides further into amino acids, dipeptides, and tripeptides. o The enzymes on the surface of the small intestinal cells split these peptides and the cells absorb them VIII. Adverse Effects of Amino Acid Imbalances: Table in book IX. Functions of Proteins A. Supporting growth and maintenance New cell growth, scar tissue, hair and nails, repairs damage cells. B. Building hormones, enzymes, and other compounds Hormones = Are chemical messengers such as insulin and glucagon Enzymes = Speed up chemical reaction (Catalysts) C. Building antibodies Fight foreign invaders Immune functions D. Maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance • Edema: Protein deficiency E. Transport substances in and out of cells 4 HNF150 Fall 2013 N. Martinson Lecture Notes F. Maintaining acid-base balance G. Energy Remember: there are 3 different energy sources Protein provides 4 calories per gram. X. Fate of an Amino Acid (6): 1. Build a growing protein (New cells) 2. Make another needed compoun
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