IAH 221C Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Danelaw, Chalcolithic, Turkic Migration

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18 Aug 2020
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Lecture 2: Iron Age, Copper Age
Iron Age
The Iron Age of the Balkans was an age of cultural and economic expansion. The most
important civilizations, the Magyars, came from the Balkans and the area east of the
Vardar River. They were able to expand their power into the easternmost part of the
Balkans, just below the Danube and Danube-Theodosian rivers. These early
civilizations were also able to expand through the Danube basin into northern Europe,
through Macedonia and Anatolia, until they faced the Roman military.
The Romans invaded the Balkans from the south. They were the first great empire of
the Mediterranean region. The Goths of northern Europe were also able to expand
westwards into eastern Europe and the Balkans from the west. It was in this way that
the Roman empire was formed.
The Roman expansion into the east was accompanied by the Hunnic expansion into the
east. This had a severe impact on the culture of both the Magyaers and the Huns. The
Magyaers were largely replaced by the Huns. In the Balkans, the Huns had established
a power, with large-scale trade, over which they ruled. In this way the Huns, the
successor of the Magyar people, were able to expand from the Danube into the area of
the central and eastern Balkans. This Hunnic expansion and the Magyar collapse had a
major impact on the rest of Europe. A number of Magyar-hordes, which were able to
extend into the area of the central and eastern Balkans, had their authority broken, often
through war and conflict. This resulted in a fall in the population, a shortage of food and
an increased level of aggression. The Hunnic expansion was also accompanied by the
Turkic expansion, in northern and central Europe, which was also able to expand into
the central and eastern Balkans from the west. This Turkic expansion had its own
impact, resulting in a fall in the population, a shortage of food and a heightened level of
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